Iron is one of the metals associated as sacred to Hekate. In the PGM, iron nails were used to pierce defixiones charms. Many of the charms called upon Hekate for help 62. Her “iron wheel” is referenced in the PGM [PGM IV, 2335-2339] 63. Iron rings were also used in charms and used to create lamallae, thin tablets on which spells were inscribed. Iron naturally occurs in meteorites and deposits of iron ore were readily available in ancient Greece. The change to smelting iron ore marked a critical shift in human history.


62 d’Este, S. and Rankine, D. 2009. Hekate: Liminal Rites. London: Avalonia

63 Betz, H-D, ed. 1996. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.

The Symbols of the Goddess Hekate
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