The Goddess Hecate in Popular Culture

An examination of the Goddess’ portrayal in 20-21st c. mass produced and distributed media

By Hazel 

(c) Hazel, October 2019. All rights reserved. Updated June 2020.

The Covenant of Hekate would like to thank Keybearer Hazel for her research, work collating and writing up all this information and making it available to our network, as well as to all others who are interested in the Goddess Hekate and her appearances in pop culture.

Summary

Goal 

To provide a synthesis of the Goddess Hecate in fictional works of popular culture of the 20-21st century. 

Objectives

1- To record the Goddess Hecate in 20-21st c. popular culture. 

2- To analyse the evolution of the Goddess Hecate from the records to discern trends, her core traits and evolution throughout the 20-21st c. 

Importance of Project and Remit

Many studies of the Goddess Hecate have been limited to historical, theological, philosophical, spiritual and experiential work. The Goddess Hecate has appeared in many fictional works: books, TV shows including animations, films and comics. This study will explore this aspect. It will be limited specifically to her reference and mention as the Goddess. Any fictional works will be limited to the time period 20-21st century, published English literature, TV shows and games. 

Method

An internet searched was carried out to obtain data entries that reference the Goddess Hecate. These data entries are listed in Chapter 3. A review of Hecate’s character and role was carried out from these data. Where it was possible, books and comics were read, and shows/movies were watched. However, doing this for every entry was extremely difficult due to obtaining the source. In this case, information gathered from the internet search proved sufficient. 

The Data Collected 

The data collected here has to be widely distributed upon its release, and included books, comics, TV and games. Fanfiction was not included. Additionally, characters named after Hecate are not included unless they reference the goddess herself. Information on the data collected included titles/ year of release/ summaries about the story arc, and Hecate’s role in it. For games, the number of maximum players, the genre, and the strategy of the game were all noted. 

Conclusions 

Similar trends across all data were noted as either major or minor themes. Major themes that stood out were Hecate’s role as the Goddess of Witchcraft, her role as villain in some cases, and standard information that it is already known about Hecate that can be gleaned from historical sources. For example, her associations with the moon, crossroads, dogs, vampires, night time and dreams. Minor themes (which are trends held by few of the data entries) included her Chaldean aspects, her close relationships with other deities, and a link to Yggdrasil the World Tree. A lot of these aspects of the fictional Goddess Hecate are clearly rooted in ancient literature about her. But her portrayal in popular culture is limited. Opportunities for devotees to produce media that can be distributed widely is a positive way to show the complexities of the Goddess Hecate, while also offering the devotee a unique way to explore their relationship with the Goddess Hecate. 

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank P.W for his help in gathering images for the TV data and for access to his library.

I would also like to thank the Covenant of Hecate devotees that took their time to give me information. I would specifically like to thank S. E. Ellis for informing me about his published book and taking the time to answer some questions for this project. 

I also appreciate those who provided me with information for data that I was previously unaware of. For the games data, this includes Panos K and Halsey Kallinen, and to those who provided me with TV data- Andrea Angelos, Christina M., Bekah Evie Bel, and finally S.W (who as of 11 October 2019) has not yet confirmed how she wanted to be acknowledged. 

I would finally like to thank the rest of the Covenant of Hecate for their lively discussions surrounding the portrayal of Hecate in popular culture. 

Chapter 1- Introduction

OVERVIEW

Approaches to exploring trends of the Goddess Hecate have been restricted to the mythological, historical/archaeological, experiential and spiritual (d’Este, 2010; d’Este & Rankine, 2009). But one unexplored area of the Goddess Hecate in popular culture. Hecate has been included in cultural literature especially in the 17th century such as the case of William Shakespeare’s works A Midsummer Night’s Dream and Macbeth. However, any mentions of Hecate’s portrayal or records of being mentioned have been brief (d’Este, 2010; ComicVine, 2019; Tweedale 2013). One of the most extensive explorations to date has been a single blog post written by a Covenant of Hecate (CoH) member (Bel, 2016). There is therefore a huge need to understand Hecate’s portrayal in popular culture. This research will explore this. 

The goal here is:

• To provide a synthesis of the Goddess Hecate in fictional works of popular culture of the 20-21st century. 

To do this, the objectives are:

1- To record the Goddess Hecate in 20-21st c. popular culture 

2- To analyse the evolution of the Goddess Hecate from the records to discern trends, her core traits and evolution throughout the 20-21st c. 

INCLUSION OF DATA 

Data acquired includes any reference or mention to the Goddess Hecate even if she does not appear in fictional form. There are instances when characters are named after her. This data is only included if there is discussion about the Goddess Hecate specifically and her connection to the human character. For example, in the TV show Penny Dreadful, a character is named after her, and this character references the Goddess Hecate. How characters reference the Goddess Hecate is the information required for this analysis as the goal is to understand how the Goddess Hecate is portrayed in fictional pop culture references. 

However, there are records where a character has the name Hecate, but the connection to the Goddess is not addressed. For example, in Fire Witch by Matt Ralphs (2016, Macmillan Children’s Books), the protagonist is a witch searching for her mother named Hecate. In the TV standalone show Twilight Zone: Of Late I Think of Cliffordville (aired April 1963), our main character meets a man known as Mr Hecate, but his name is never explained. In ‘The Worst Witch’, there is a character who has the middle name Hecate, but it is unsure if the Goddess Hecate is specifically mentioned. In these cases, this data has not been included. 

Fanfiction will not be included as it is only published online and is not mass produced. Songs and poems are not included because these honour the non-fictional (i.e. real) Goddess Hecate. 

It can be argued that the Goddess Hecate works and shows herself through fictional works, and therefore the fictional Goddess Hecate is real. Nevertheless, her fictional representation is still just one aspect of her as many devotees will acknowledge. For the purposes of this analysis to communicate the differences between these two Hecate’s a distinction will be made between the two: the fictional Hecate (the portrayal of her in media), and the real Hecate (the one that is worshipped by the community). Therefore, these language differences are only done as a form of communication. Whether the fictional Goddess Hecate is just as real as the Goddess Hecate that the community accepts is a topic that is open to opinion and subjective experiences. Debate in this area after considering the results here could be fruitful and interesting. It is the fictional Goddess Hecate that is examined here; her evolution and what she symbolises. 

Finally, the data included here is correct as of 25 June 2020. Attempts have been made to ensure a detailed and extensive search has been carried out to obtain as much data as possible. However, there is a possibility that some data may have been missed. 

Popular culture has been defined asCultural artefacts or media content produced for mass audiences. This equates popular culture with commercial success” (Oxford Reference, 2019). Thus, the idea is to collect and collate data which is defined as media items in which Hecate appears or is mentioned. This will provide a record for others, and this research will ultimately form the basis for which others can continue to explore. Further ideas for extending investigative analysis can include extending the time period backwards or non-English pieces of work or fanfiction. The possibilities are endless. 

Chapter 2- Methods

THE DATA

The data here has been organised as below according to its type:

1- Books

2- TV (programmes and movies)

3- Comics 

4- Games 

Information about data to collect came from memory, assistance from others from the CoH and from web searches. For each piece of data, the following information was collated:

Name/title of media, the year the media was published/released/aired, summary of the media, whether Hecate is mentioned or appears, and whether she is mentioned/appears in a standalone (one episode, book or comic of a series), or as part of a full series. Hecate’s role or mention is summarised, images are provided if it is either a TV, a comic or a game, and if a game is mentioned how it many players it allows for, the type of game, how it is played and its developers. 

COLLECTING INFORMATION ON THE DATA 

Google searches were conducted to ensure that accurate information for the data was obtained. For books and comics, Amazon (https://www.amazon.co.uk/) was used to collect information as well as conduct a general search. The capacity to “look inside” books was used to determine Hecate’s role within the story. Where a print copy of the book was available on Amazon, the term “Hecate” could be searched for within the book. This proved to be valuable in identifying specific details on how Hecate was included or mentioned, and quotes were often obtained this way. In some cases, where “look inside” did not apply (e.g. Kindle) print copies of books were obtained via a local library. For TV data, IMBD (https://www.imdb.com/) was used to obtain information for movies. For TV series, information was gleaned from the programme specific wiki pages as well as Fandom (https://www.fandom.com/). A certain amount of TV and book data was already watched and read respectively prior to this analysis. But some data was read/watched specifically for this research, which included one comic in P. W’s library. Fandom provided considerable information for comics and some of the most well-known games. Information on lesser known games were obtained from a simple Google search. 

PRESENTATION OF DATA

The data is presented according to its type. Within each type, the data is presented differently according to whether Hecate appears in a standalone or not. The data appears in Chapter 3. Included below is how the data is formatted and presented. In this project, data entries will be referred with their associated data entry number where the first number indicates the type, and the second number indicates the entry. The data entries are listed in chronological order. 

PRESENTATION OF DATA: THE FORMAT

1- BOOKS 

Standalone book

Book: Title of book, Author, Year Published, Publishing Company

Summary of book: Describe the plotline in such a way so as to not give any spoilers

Hecate’s role in the book: How she supports the plotline

(Key quotes: Include page numbers in original publication) if necessary

Book series 

Book series: Book Series Title, Author, Publishing Company

Summary of series: Describe the plotline in such a way so as to not give any spoilers

Hecate’s Appearance: List the book in order where she is either mentioned or appears in

And so, on if necessary 

Hecate’s role in the book: If she is mentioned, then how she is referred to, or if she appears as a character how she supports the plotline

(Key quotes: Include page numbers in original publication) if necessary 

2- TV 

Stand-alone TV episode

TV Show: TV Show 

Summary of the show: Describe the TV show in such a way so as to not give any spoilers

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  

Initial Air Date: In format Day, Month, Year

Summary of the episode: Describe the episode so as to not give any spoilers

Hecate’s role: How she supports the plot 

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Actress who plays her

Image: Image of how Hecate is portrayed with link to source 

Stand-alone TV episode where she is mentioned but doesn’t appear

TV Show: TV Show 

Summary of the show: Describe the TV show in such a way so as to not give any spoilers

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  

Initial Air Date: In format Day, Month, Year

Hecate’s Appearance: How she is mentioned: Invoked? Is it an image? List if she appears in several episodes

(Image: Provide the image with link to source) if required

TV series where she appears in more than one episode

TV Show: TV Show

Summary of the show: Describe the TV show in such a way so as to not give any spoilers

Series Number, Episode Number and Title: In list form 

Initial Air Dates: In list form respectively of the episodes written above

Hecate’s role: In format Day, Month, Year

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Actress who plays or voices her

Image: Image of how Hecate is portrayed with link to source

TV series where she is mentioned but doesn’t appear in more than one episode

TV Show: TV Show 

Summary of the show: Describe the TV show in such a way so as to not give any spoilers

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  In list form

Initial Air Date: In list form respectively of the episodes written above

Hecate’s Appearance: How she is mentioned: Invoked? Is it an image? List if she appears in several episodes

(Image: Image of how Hecate is portrayed with link to source) if required

Films

Movie: Title of movie, Year of Release 

Summary of movie: Describe the movie in such a way so as to not give any spoilers

Hecate’s role: How she supports the plot 

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Actress who plays her

Image: Image of how Hecate is portrayed with link to source) if required

3- COMICS

Comic Series 

Comic series: Comic Series, Publishers 

Issue Name (Number), Date: List if necessary

Issue Name (Issue or Volume Numbers), Date Published 

Summary of series: Describe the plotline in such a way so as to not give any spoilers

Hecate’s Role in the series: 

Key quotes: Include page numbers in original publication

Image: Image of how Hecate is portrayed with link to source) if required

4- GAMES

Standalone Game

Game: Name of game 

Released: Date of release

Developer: Who developed the game

Mode: How many players can get involved 

Genre: How it is played- strategy, method

Platform: Console or application through which it is played, or if it is a board or card game 

Summary of game: Describe the game and the overall goal

Hecate’s role: When/ How she appears and how as a character she supports the game

Image: Image of how Hecate is portrayed with link to source

Games Series

Game Series: Name of game

Game/ Date of release: List the sub-games and their release

Developer: Who developed the game

Mode: How many players can get involved

Genre: How it is played- strategy, method  

Platform: Console or application or board game through which it is played

Summary of game: Describe the game and the overall goal

Hecate’s role: When/ How she appears and how as a character she supports the game

Image: Image of how Hecate is portrayed link to source

TRENDS EXPLORED

There were two ways the trends of the Goddess’s portrayal were explored here:

The first was that common themes across all data that stood out over the course of collecting them were noted. Common themes particular to a type of data were noted as well. Secondly, particular questions on specific themes were addressed:

1) How variable is Hecate’s role in a plot? Is she essential or complementary?

2) Some data go into much more detail about her (family, unknown aspects) than others. But over time, has this data become more frequent?

3) Hecate is often a villain or is evil in some data, but over the course of time does she lose her villain status because more information about her is coming out? 

To explore the first question the data was categorised into the different ways Hecate contributed to the plot. Answering the second question meant quantifying a “standard” level of information about Hecate, and placing all data in chronological order to determine if those that go beyond the “standard” level increase more with time. For the final question, Hecate’s role was tracked in the data where she was identified as a villain alongside the year of the media’s release. 

Chapter 3- Data

1- Fictional Books

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.1

Book: Hecate and Her Dogs, Paul Morand, Written in 1954, Published 2009, Pushkin Collection. 

Summary of book: This is a controversial book considering the author was a fascist. This book includes elements of paedophilia and other extreme perverse elements. Morand tells the story of a banker who is recalling a relationship he had with a woman called Clothilde in North Africa. The banker (the narrator) starts to imagine the perversity of this woman. But the story is mysterious in that the perversity is implied, it is unsure if the banker is imagining it or not. 

Hecate’s mention: While it was difficult to obtain information and quotes from the book, from reviews it becomes transparent that the banker/narrator is comparing this woman to Hecate. It is implied that by doing so, he may be drawing parallels to the darkness of character between Clothilde and Hecate. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.2 

Book: Enchantress Book 3 of the Night World Series, L.J. Smith, 1996, Hodder’s Children’s Books. 

Summary of book: Blaise is a witch who practises black magic, and when she meets her cousin Thea who practises white magic, they become rivals in love. 

Hecate’s mention: Hecate is only mentioned in this book as being the Goddess of Witchcraft. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.3

Book: Krewe of Hecate, Sim Shattuck, 2006, Dream Catcher Publishing

Summary of book: A small group of New Orleans people decide to descend into the Underworld and capture Hecate. But when they do so successfully, things start to happen. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is so central to the story because she is a victim. Zeus creates her by playing a game of pool with the Demiurge. 

Key quotes: They became the triple Goddess of the Underworld, the three headed Hecate. They (or She as you prefer) are fused together at the spine. They took power from the Fates and then killed them. Hecate became Matron, Maiden, Mother and Crone; also, Maker, Sustainer, Ender.” ” Pg. 2. “In her official capacities, she carries a key, whip and torch.” As if in anger over what happened to her, the triple Goddess came to develop a dark side, her cyanocephalic, or dog-headed phase.” Pg. 3.

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.4

Book: Goddess of the Rose, P.C. Cast, 2006, The Berkeley Publishing Group, USA

Summary of book: Mikado Empusai (descended from a lineage of women whose blood gives nourishment to roses) is the mortal whisked into the Realm of the Roses which is presided over by Hecate and guarded by the Beast. Her job is to look after the roses. 

Hecate’s role: Apart from her other duties elsewhere, Hecate owns and looks after the Realm of the Roses where the majority of the book is set. 

Key quotes: 

“‘I am the Goddess Hecate, and I welcome you to the Realm of the Rose.’” Page 90.

“‘I am not simply Medea’s goddess’. Hecate broke the silence suddenly. ‘I am Goddess of Beasts, Magick and the Ebony Moon. I have dominion over the dark of night, dreams and the crossroads between the known and the unknown.’” Pg. 91.

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.5

Book: Hecate’s Child, Jeff Dunn, 2006, Author House 

Summary of book: In this science fiction story, Joey Copernicus (who lives on the moon finds and befriends Diana) who is connected to a mysterious organisation known as the Hecate Foundation. 

Hecate’s mention: The Goddess Hecate is talked about in the past tense, and her name is used to describe an organisation notably linking her role to the moon. Other than that, she does not serve as a character. 

Key quotes: “Greek moon Goddess. She was the Dark side of the moon where Artemis was the Light side. She was also the Goddess of Witchcraft” Pg. 44. 

“It was Hecate that brought the two field together, and they recruited me to head the research” Pg. 177. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.6

Book: Let The Shadows Fall: A Tribe of Hecate Story (Book 1 of The Shadow Series), 2009, Terri A. Wilson, Pink Moon Books 

Summary of book: After her step-father passes away, Elizabeth O’Grady runs an inn in the American Wild West with her mother. Eventually she uncovers a whole supernatural world in her own town. 

Hecate’s mention: Hecate is mentioned throughout the book as a Goddess of Healing where characters invoke her help. As she is central to the empowerment of women throughout the book, she then appears and helps a character on her journey. 

Key quotes: “One night, a young maiden cried to the Goddess Selene who called on Hecate.” Pg. 113.  

“One woman appeared to be three in one body…. A black dog stood close to her side…” Pg. 122. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.7

Percy Jackson World: http://camphalfblood.wikia.com/wiki/Hecate

Book Series: Percy Jackson and the Olympians Book Series 2005-2009, Rick Riordan, Disney Hyperion, USA.

Summary of the series: The focus is on Percy Jackson, who is a son of Poseidon. He is introduced into the world where demi-gods, children of mortals and Gods fight monsters after being claimed by their parent God, should they wish to do so. They attend Camp Half Blood which is their training camp. The series follows Percy as he leads other demigods into the Second War against the Titans led by Kronos and his forces.  

Hecate’s mention: 

#2 The Sea of Monsters

#4 The Battle of the Labyrinth

#5 The Last Olympian 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is mentioned as Scylla’s and Circe’s mother in the ‘The Sea of Monsters’ as Percy faces both. In The Battle of the Labyrinth she is mentioned as the creator of the Empousae, and having changed sides from the Gods to the Titans. In the final instalment, Hecate slows down time around the area where a battle is to take place. By the end of book series, it is mentioned that the cabin for Hecate’s children is under construction, as she has returned to the side of the Gods the reason for which is mentioned in The Demigod Diaries Son of Magic (see below). 

Book Series: The Heroes of Olympus Book Series, 2010- 2014, Rick Riordan, Disney Hyperion, USA.

Summary of series: The focus is on the demigod Jason, son of one of the Roman Gods who brings together the children of the Romans Gods with those of the Greeks to fight against the Giants that have returned. 

Hecate’s appearance: 

She is mentioned in: 

#1 The Lost Hero

She appears in:

 #4 The House of Hades

#5 The Blood of Olympus

Hecate’s role: In the first book The Lost Hero, Hecate is mentioned as the mother of Lou-Ellen. In The House of Hades, she reveals she is the Goddess of Magic giving her authority over magic; Goddess of the Mist (which hides this world from mortals); and Goddess of necromancy giving her control over the dead. She can also give prophecies. 

Key quotes:

“Three smoky images of the same woman moved in unison towards the centre of the ruins. Her form was blurred, made from Mist, and she was trailed by two smaller wisps of smoke, darting at her heels like animals. Some sort of pets? She reached in the centre of the courtyard and her three forms merged into one.” Pg. 16.

“‘I am Hecate,’ she said. ‘Goddess of magic. We have much to discuss if you’re to live through tonight’”. Pg. 17 #4 The House of Hades.

“‘Choices,’ said Hecate. ‘You stand at the crossroads, Hazel Levesque. And I am the goddess of crossroads.’”  Pg. 21 #4 The House of Hades.

“‘Yes, crossroads.’ The giant’s (Clytius) laughter echoed. ‘Hecate offers you obscurity, choices, vague promises of magic. I am the anti-Hecate. I will give you truth. I will eliminate choices and magic. I will strip away the Mist, once and for all, and show you the world in all its true horror.’” Pg. 556 #4 The House of Hades.

Book: The Demigod Diaries, Son of Magic, 2012 Rick Riordan, Disney Hyperion, USA

Summary of book: A collection of short stories and activities relating to the world created by Rick Riordan. The story takes place at the same time as the series The Heroes of Olympus (see above) and centres on Alabaster C. Torrington, the son of Hecate who fought on the side of Kronos during the second Titan War.

Hecate’s role: The plot of the story ‘Son of Magic’ written by Haley Riordan is based around Hecate’s children Marian Lamia, and Alabaster, who fight and want to kill each other in order to take the lead as to which side Hecate’s children will fight on based on Hecate’s neutrality and changing sides. Hecate intervenes as she wants neither of them to die.  

Key quotes: 

“‘I [Lamia] was the daughter of Hecate, goddess of magic. Zeus himself fell in love with me!….Hera slaughtered my children right in front of my eyes! She…! That woman…!’” Pg. 209.

“‘Lamia!’ Alabaster shouted at the sky. ‘Former queen of the Libyan empire and daughter of Hecate!’” Pg. 226.

“‘My main role as a goddess is maintaining the Mist, the magical barrier between the Olympian and mortal worlds. I keep those two worlds apart.’” Pg. 239.

Book: Percy Jackson’s Greek Gods, 2014, Rick Riordan, Disney Hyperion, USA

Summary of book: Percy Jackson writes as the author about the Creation of the World, Birth of the Gods and the Greek myths as they take place in the book series Percy Jackson and the Olympians, The Heroes of Olympus and the book The Demigod Diaries. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is mentioned in Persephone’s abduction “Persephone marries her stalker” where she hears Persephone’s screams and goes to Demeter. Once agreements have been made that Persephone will spend some of her time in the Underworld, Hecate chooses to keep her company. However, she is not mentioned as keeping Persephone company during her time in the Underworld. Neither is her birth mentioned, 

Key quotes: “In a cave on a nearby mountainside, a Titan named Hecate was minding her own business. Hecate was into magic and spooky night time crossroads and ghosts. She was sort of the first super-fan of Halloween. Normally she only left her cave after dark, so that day she was sitting inside reading spell books or whatever when she heard a girl screaming.” Pg. 9. “Hecate may have been a dark goddess of magic, but she wasn’t evil. She immediately ran to help” Pg. 9. “I’ve got torches, and I’m really good at seeing in the dark.” Pg. 9. The magic Titan Hecate, who had helped Demeter search, went to the Underworld and became one of Persephone’s attendants. That was cool with Hecate.” Pg. 11. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.8

Book series: Daughters of the Moon, Lynne Ewing, 2010, Disney-Hyperion

Summary of series: These books tell the tale of a group of mortal women who become mortal goddesses with different powers and obstacles. Ultimately, they must face the ancient evil known as The Atrox. 

Hecate’s appearance: 

#2 Into the Cold Fire 2000

#5 The Sacrifice 2001

Hecate’s role: Hecate is referred to as the Dark Goddess and Goddess of the Crossroads. She appears as an old woman with dogs who hands a key to one of the characters in book 2. Later, she helps prevent a stand down in book 5. In this way, Hecate appears to be helpful and on the Daughters’ side. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.9

Book series: The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel,  Michael Scott, Corgi Children’s Publishing Company

Summary of series: Taking place in the Harry Potter world, is the story of Nicholas Flamel and how stays immortal. 

Hecate’s appearance: 

The Alchemyst, 2010

The Magician, 2010

The Sorceress, 2010

The Necromancer, 2011

The Warlock, 2012

The Enchantress, 2013 

Hecate’s role: Hecate appears in three of the books and is mentioned in the other three. Her character is particularly significant in the development of one of the main character’s magical abilities. She is visited by some of the characters, and her home is the World Tree Yggdrasill. 

Key quotes: 

The Alchemyst:

“This…is the Elder known as Hekate…The Goddess with the Three Faces.” Pg. 110. 

“Daughter of Perses and Asteria, you are the Goddess of Magic and Spells…” Pg. 122. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.10

Book: The World According to Hecate, Bobbie James, 2011, Create Space Independent Publishing Platform

Summary of book: This is the story of creation; of how Zeus and Hecate created the world.

Hecate’s role: Here Hecate is a creator alongside Zeus and she is clearly central to moving the plot along. 

Key quotes: “Asleep inside an ocean made of energy lays a magical King named Zeus until one day he wakes up and with his first thought creates the Goddess Hecate. Hecate helps Zeus use the energy in the ocean to create Earth and its people.” Back cover. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.11 

Book: Hecate’s Glory, Karen Michalson, 2012, Arula Books. 

Summary of book:  In a world of fantasy and mystical creature, Llewelyn (a wizard) recounts his adventures where war is at hand. Many characters are devoted to different gods, and acquire the skills relevant to the god. 

Hecate’s role: The main character Llewelyn has pledged himself to Hecate, and by doing so he now receives his magical powers from her. She is described as an evil and throughout the book Llewelyn prays to her for guidance, asks for her blessings, and even calls upon Hecate frequently. She communicates to him by way of visions. Her devotees are vegetarian, and is the known as the Goddess of Crossroads with dogs.  

Key quotes: “Hecate is evil, and insists that Her priests uphold all laws that uphold that restrain and restrict lives” Pg. 12.

“ ‘Hecate pale, Hecate ascetic, Hecate Lady of the Wandering Moon…. If I have transgressed against you, the sacred source of my evil, please have mercy and hold back your dogs from destroying my spirit when I die back into you. Hecate Lady Who Guards the Crossroads, that I have told of my life tonight is yours to bless or destroy.’ “ Pg. 19-20.

“Despite my restriction against flesh, Hecate would be pleased with the death of an owl under the circumstances of initiation.” Pg. 35. 

“ ‘I am the Goddess who restricts the mind and destroys creativity. I require sacrifice. And I require justice’ “ Pg. 466.  

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.12 

Book: Shadow of Night Book 2 of the series A Discovery of Witches, Deborah Harkness, 2013, Headline Publishers

Summary of book: As part of a series which is about a forbidding relationship between the vampire Matthew Clairmont and the witch Diana Bishop, the two of them in this story travel back in time. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is only mentioned briefly in a passing comment by the witch Diana to her vampire partner in relation to witchcraft. There are no other associations connected to Hecate’s mention. 

Key quotes: “But you do not like witches any more than Kit does Matthew. You have always discouraged me from attending to the subject. When I set out to write a poem about Hecate you told me to….” Pg. 11. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.13

Book series: Cobweb Bride, Vera Nazarian,  Leda Publishing

Summary of series: This is a very grand and almost a sequel to the myth of Persephone and Hades set in an alternative Renaissance world. 

Hecate’s appearance: 

Cobweb Bride 2013

Cobweb Empire 2013

Cobweb Forest 2013

Hecate’s role: Hecate appears throughout as a different character, but is eventually revealed. She helps out various characters in varying capacities. She has witch associations, and with magical powers she can change people into becoming elementals. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.14

Book: The Shadowhunter’s Codex, Cassandra Clare and Joshua Lewis, 2013, Walkers Publishing

Summary of book: This book is a fictional supplementary addition to the book series The Mortal Instruments and also the TV show known as Shadowhunters Chronicles. This story places the teenager Clary Fray into a world of supernatural creatures (including vampires) where she is a human born with angelic blood to protect humans from demons. Clary Fray composes this supplementary book.

Hecate’s role: Hecate is described as the origin of vampires where she was inspired by Vlad’s cruelty to turn him into a vampire. 

Key quotes: “The Greater Demon Hecate, sometimes (and confusingly) called “the Mother of Witches” was summoned in a massive blood sacrifice held in 1444 at the Court in Wallachia, in what is now Romania. The then-ruler of Wallachia, Vlad III, had a great circle of prisoners of war impaled on tall wooden spikes, and in exchange for this impressive sacrifice Hecate transformed Vlad and the large majority of his court into the first vampires.” Pg. 96.

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.15

Book: Goddess Hecate: A Short Story, Nathan Ray Denison, 2014, Unable to identify publishing company

Summary of book: As a main character Hecate warns Zeus about Hades’ plot to destroy the world. 

Hecate’s role: In this very short story, Hecate moves the plot along in a major way. She lives in the Underworld, owns Cerberus who gets turned against her with a spell and she fights Hades and one of his allies. 

Key quotes: “Hecate was sent to the underworld to take care of Persephone” Pg. 1. “Hecate’s companion in the underworld was a three headed dog name Cerberus” Pg. 3. “Hecate then returned to her normal form of one goddess” Pg. 3. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.16

Book: A Bargain with Hecate, Jim Gardner, 2015, Independent Publishers 

Summary of book: This is one short story within a book of the same name. The short story is a mystery based on three trees appearing and deaths occurring. 

Hecate’s role: Due to the lack of information, it is unsure if Hecate appears in the book. However, judging from the title, it is likely a bargain was made with Hecate and therefore there might be a degree of magic involved. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.17

Book: Hecate’s Moon, Carol Ann Dobson, 2015, Appledrane. 

Summary of book: Esther Cerfbeer and Armand de Delacroix flee revolutionary France and end up in North Devon where they come across Isabella, adopted daughter of the McAlpine’s. Mrs McAlpine is a Hecate priestess who performs rituals. It is this background where romance and witchcraft play out.  

Hecate’s role: While it is difficult to ascertain Hecate’s role within this book, it is noted that witchcraft and rituals are taking place that are linked to Hecate.

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.18

Book series: Amulet of Hecate, Jane Charlotte, Auld Reekie Writing.

Summary of series: In order to save her brother, Sarah Snow is a reluctant witch who keeps trying to reanimate her brother every time he dies. Although on one occasion, it doesn’t entirely go to plan, and now both realise the importance of obtaining a magical amulet that belongs to Hecate to rectify it. 

Hecate’s mention: 

Captive Moon 2015

Blood Moon 2017 

Hecate’s role: While it is hard to glean information here, Hecate’s amulet is clearly magical, and the book contains witchcraft and vampires so there is a clear supernatural and magical element tied to Hecate. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.19   

Book: Hestia the Dreamwalker Volume 1, S.E Ellis, 2017, Create Space Independent Publishing. 

Summary of book: Dreamwalking does not come easy to teenager Hestia. But she has to master it fairly quickly if she wants to save her brother, whom dream-walking comes easily to. 

Hecate’s role: Hestia is taken to Hecate, as she is told that Hecate can help find and save her brother. During the journey to meet Hecate in the dreamworld, the sky darkens to night time. Hecate first appears as a large white luminous wolf who does help Hestia to find her brother. However, Hecate asks something in return. She is clearly seen as goddess to be respected, revered, has authority in how she communicates and does not give favours without asking for something herself.

Key quotes: “Hekate is…I guess a goddess would be the best way to describe her… Goddess of the moon, of wolves…” Pg. 158.  “ ‘The affairs of humans are not the affairs of wolves.’ Speaking with a hint of terseness and annoyance in her voice. Pg. 170. “ ‘She’s [Hekate] not merely asking for the staff because she wants to have the magic imbued in the staff but to show that she wishes she could take that power away from humans, even ones that she considers friends such as myself’” Pg. 170. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.20 

Book series: Daughters of Hecate, Meredith Madina, Independent Publishing

Summary of series: These books tell the tales of individual people who are all described as ‘Daughters of Hecate’ also known as witches and vampires. 

Hecate’s appearance: 

#0.5 Witchmark (prequel) 2017

#1 Sticks and Stones 2017

#2 Moonlight Burns 2017

#3 Power of Three 2018 

#4 Haven 2018

Vampire Punk, a novella 2018

Hecate’s role: Hecate is clearly seen the origin of witches in this series. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.21

Book: Hecate’s Own (Book 2 of the Heart’s Desire series), Dana Marie Bell, 2018, Create Space Independent Publishing Platform. 

Summary of book: The book is about Zachary Beckett who is a witch and therefore described as being one of the ‘Hecate’s Own’. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate features as a Goddess that is referred to throughout the book, particularly the Goddess of Magic, closely associated with the Dark Moon. Additionally, Hecate’s Wheel features significantly as being a mark of belonging to Hecate. 

Key quotes: “Chris shot Gareth at the sight of the Hecate’s Wheel permanently branded onto his skin” Pg. 48. “There were those that considered Hecate, the Goddess of Magic.” Pg. 49. 

“He was calling down the Dark Moon, Hecate herself.” Pg. 125.

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.22

Book: Hecate The Wronged, JJ King, 2019, King Publishing. 

Summary of book: Two thousand years ago, as Selene watches her love Endymion dying unable to save him, Hecate combines her magic with Selene’s to help revive him. They do, but he is now in eternal sleep, and Hecate and Selene have fused together. In the present day, Cate (Hecate and Selene) are on a quest to find a way to awaken Endymion. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is a key character in the book having merged with Selene (Goddess of the Moon). She is seen as one of three Goddesses and frequently does magic.  

Key quotes: “Hecate gasped as her magic fused with Selene’s” Chapter 1. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.23

Book series: Pages of Darkness, Samantha Grosser, Sam Grosser Books.

Summary of series: While each book is a standalone story, the connecting theme is that the stories involve books about magic and witchcraft. 

Hecate’s Appearance: 

#1 Shakespeare’s Witch 2019

#2 The Sorcerer’s Whore 2019 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is a key deity in the books that both characters pray to and do magic in her name. They invoke her and in book 2, she appears with the yew tree and a black dog. In both books, she is of the dark realms and of death. 

Key quotes: “…in spite of her curse and her deformity, to take her to the forest, where she talked about a Goddess called Hecate” Book 2, Pg. 5.

“Hecate, she thought, come as a psychopomp to accompany…” Book1 Pg. 301. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.24

Book: A Touch of Darkness, Scarlett St. Claire, 2019, Independently Published.

Summary of book: This is an updated and modernised version of Hades’ and Persephone’s relationship that take place in the present day where Persephone is masquerading as a mortal.  

Hecate’s role: Hecate features heavily in the book as a close friend and a teacher of magic for Persephone.  

Key quotes: “and a love of the Goddess of Witchcraft, Hecate” Pg. 3. “…she didn’t know how to harness how she felt, or use it to create illusions, but she planned to meet Hecate this evening for lessons” Pg. 249. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.25

Book: Adrian Preskott and the Sacred Amulet of Hecate (Book 2 of the Adrian Preskott Series), Sherlock Kain, 2019, Independently Published

Summary of book: Adrian Preskott is a sorcerer and attending classes his friends when he and his friends embark on a journey to obtain an amulet belonging to Hecate, and also to try and bring her back. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is central to the story as the children are trying to help her, and eventually she appears. She is known as the Goddess of the Crossroads, Magic and witchcraft, and has dogs. 

Key quotes: “Hecate was Goddess of Crossroads, Goddess of Magic, and Goddess of Witchcraft” Pg. 120. “They’re supposed to be the hounds of Zeus- he gave Hecate dominion over them” Pg. 167.

ENTRY NUMBER: 1.26

Book: A Ring Realms Novel: Savant’s Blood Saga Book 2: Hecate’s Bounty, Will Greenway, 2019, Independently Published

Summary of book: Taking from her mother at a young age, Wren embarks on a journey to discover who is and why Hecate wants her. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is a villain and a witch here, but there appears to be no other associations in the book. 

Key quotes: “as fast as they were, the demon horde of Hecate were already moving” Pg. 135. “…too valuable a commodity to let that power-hungry witch ruin you with succorunding” Pg. 126.

2- TV

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.1

Movie: Jason and the Argonauts, 1963 

Summary of movie: Jason is the hero as he goes in search of the Golden Fleece. He meets Medea, a priestess of Hecate who helps him. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is clearly mentioned as a Goddess that Medea has devoted her to. There is an infamous scene where in Hecate’s Temple, Jason beholds Medea and devotees dancing in front of a large Hecate statue. 

Images: Taken by Hazel 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.2

Movie: Midnight Offerings, 1981

Summary of Movie: Vivian has magic powers. She doesn’t hesitate to save her boyfriend David from failing in school by murdering teachers. However, David has gotten tired of her and is putting his charm on a new girl in school, Robin. 

Hecate’s role: One of the main characters invokes Hecate as part of a death-causing ritual. The ritual sequence begins with “Hecate, hear me. Nocticula-Hecate hear me,” and ends with “Lady of Darkness. Lady of Death. Nocticula-Hecate”. The inclusion of the name Nocticula points to the book Mastering Witchcraft by Paul Huson as a probable influence. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.3

Movie: Hecate, 1982 

Summary of movie: This is based on the controversial book Hecate and Her Dogs by Paul Morand written in 1954 and published in 2009. Cross reference with data entry 1.1. 

Set in North Africa, a French diplomat starts a relationship with Clothilde, and he gets drawn into her drama and sexual fantasies. A comparison is made between Clothilde and Hecate, and the diplomat starts to wonder if it is the Goddess Hecate. 

Hecate’s role: While it is difficult to obtain the movie to be absolutely sure, Hecate is referred to as a way to compare her to Clothilde. 

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Clothilde is played by the actress Lauren Hutton. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.4

TV Show: Hercules The Legendary Journeys 

Summary of the show: Hercules has his own adventures after already being established as a hero. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  Series 1, Episode 1, The Wrong Path 

Initial Air Date: 16 January 1995

Hecate’s mention: Hecate is only mentioned when a man from a village known as Ister gets help from Iolaus and Hercules. A female demon is petrifying men and given Hecate their souls. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.5

Movie: Practical Magic, 1998 

Summary of movie: The movie centres on two sister witches and their romantic relationships and the often fatal consequences of the men involved. 

Hecate’s role: In an attempt to revive the dead ex- boyfriend, the sisters invoke Hecate and her role over the dead with an incantation: “Black as night, erase death from our sight, white as light, mighty Hecate make it right.” 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.6

TV Show: Hercules (animated)

Summary of the show: A young Hercules has adventures in each episode.

Series Number, Episode Number and Title: Series 1:

Episode 17, Hercules and the Underworld Takeover

Episode 20, Hercules and the Disappearing Heroes, 

Initial Air Dates: 23 September 1998; 5 October 1998

Hecate’s role: In episode 17, Hecate is a villain whose desire is to take over the Underworld. Hades’ minions recruit Hercules to defeat Hecate. “Hecate dear, Queen of the Night is a very responsible position”– Zeus to Hecate. “Oh, I get it, he’s your brother and I’m just a witch”– Hecate. In episode 20, Hecate is kidnapping heroes to once again find an opportunity to defeat Hades and take over the Underworld. In both episodes she is accompanied by two winged wolves known by Hecate as Empousae despite being voiced by men.

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Peri Gilpin 

Image: Screenshots from You Tube showing

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ENTRY NUMBER: 2.7

TV Show: Buffy the Vampire Slayer 

Summary of the show: Buffy is a chosen one selected to fight and kill vampires. She is accompanied by her friends notably Willow and Xander who she meets at school, and Rupert Giles who is her Watcher providing guidance. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  

Series 2, Episode 16, Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered 

Series 3, Episode 11, Gingerbread

Series 7, Episode 6, Him  

Initial Air Date: 10 February 1998; 12 January 1999; 5 November 2002. 

Hecate’s mention: In series 2, episode 16, Hecate is invoked by a witch against Buffy and turns her into a mouse. “Goddess Hecate, work thy will. Before thee let the unclean thing crawl!”– Amy. In the Gingerbread episode, Amy conducts the same spell on herself and Giles invokes Hecate in a spell to save his friends, but he says it in German. The English translation is: “Demons show yourselves. I call on the powers of Hecate, queen and protectress of witches, to strip away the masks. Let evil wear an evil face…. Hecate implores you. Lift the veil”. Eventually Buffy and Willow make an attempt to turn Amy back into a human with an invocation: “Diana! Hecate! I hereby license thee to depart. Goddess of creatures great and small – I conjure thee to withdraw!” In Him, Willow starts a spell by invoking Hecate but gets interrupted by Xander: “Oh, Hecate, I call on you. I humbly ask your will be done. Hear my request, a simple change, create a daughter from a…” 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.8

TV Show: Toei Yu Gi Oh 

Summary of the show: Yugi Mutou is a young boy who loves all games but when he plays a puzzle known as the Millennium Puzzle, he ends up playing host to his alter ego/ spirit that can take him over at any time. Over the course of the series, he plays various games that involves battling others. Cross reference with data entry 4.2. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  

Series 1, Episode 15, Scary Woman, Unable to Transform 

Initial Air Date: 11 July 1998

Summary of the episode: A new character attempts to steal Yugi’s card Violet Hecate which is part of the Magic and Wizards cards. 

Hecate’s role: Violet Hecate is just one out of three aspects- Red and Yellow Hecate. Altogether, all three aspects form the Goddess of Wickedness Hecate in one form, and the Gorgon. 

Image: From the Yu Gi Oh Wiki

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.9

TV Show: Charmed 

Summary of the show: The show focuses upon three sister witches; Phoebe, Piper and Prue, who battle evil demons and warlocks and save “innocents” who are targets of the demons and warlocks. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  Series 1, Episode 6, The Wedding from Hell

Initial Air Date: 11 November 1998  

Summary of the episode: The sisters help the innocent Alison Michaels who they discover should be marrying Eliot Spencer, son of Mrs Jade Spencer instead of Jade D’Mon who suddenly turns up.

Hecate’s role: Hecate is the Queen of the Underworld who comes to earth every 200 years to conceive a child who being half demon, half human can live in the world to spread evil. At one point during the episode, she invokes Perses and Asteria to cause a storm as a distraction. She also has her female associates but they never described as anything. 

Character played by: Sarah Rose Peterson

Image: From Charmed wiki page

http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/charmed/images/2/22/Hecate1.png/revision/latest?cb=20111021225748

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.10

TV Show: Angel 

Summary of the show: Angel is a vampire cursed with having soul. In L.A with associates he helps people with supernatural problems. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  Series 4, Episode 15, Orpheus, 

Initial Air Date: 19 March 2003

Hecate’s mention: Willow’s comments on another character- Wesley: “Oh, and it’s the Marlboro man. Or at least his extra-stubbly, mentally unstable, insomniac first cousin. Oh, for the love of Hecate, somebody stop me.”

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.11

TV Show: Class of the Titans  

Summary of the show: Descendants of heroes and Gods from Ancient Greece attempt to battle and defeat the titan Cronus as they are destined to do. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  

Series 1, Episode 8, See you at the crossroads, 

Initial Air Date: 11 February 2006

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Patricia Drake

Hecate’s appearance: Cronus (as the villain) calls Hecate back who was banished to the moon. Before her appearance, her owl goes in search of her torches as with them she can bring the dead back and unleash havoc from the moon. She appears with two dogs and eventually morphs into having three animal heads. “Hecate? The Goddess of Witchcraft?” – Theresa “We’ll summon the Keeper of the Crossroads and all her friends”– Cronus 

Images: From the Clash of the Titans Wiki Page & screen dump from You Tube showing 

Image result for Class of the TItans Hecate
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ENTRY NUMBER: 2.12

Movie: Hellboy: Blood and Iron, 2007, 

Summary of movie: Hellboy and his group face off against the female vampire Erzsebet Ondrushko who is said to have been resurrected. Cross reference with 3.2 data entry.

Hecate’s role: Hecate is said to have turned Erzsebet Ondrushko into a vampire when she sold her soul to Hecate and claims allegiance to her. Hecate herself appears in a gorgon and serpentine form when she is either talking to or fighting Hellboy. At one point she tries to convince Hellboy to join the dark side as a demon as he is meant to. Her significance to the story means she is referred to quite extensively before her appearance. Comments directed at her are made that refer to her appearance: “Aren’t you missing a couple of heads?” Hellboy to Hecate 

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Voiced by Cree Summer

Images: Acknowledgements to P.W for the photos and subsequent editing. 

Extra Notes: One image used in the movie comes from Roman Hecate Standing Plaque from a Roman Seal currently located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.13

TV Show: Caprica 

Summary of the show: This is a spin-off of Battlestar Galactica which is a prequel to it. Humans live in peace on the planet Kobol but artificial intelligence technology has been developed which will ultimately lead to the creation of the cylons. At the same time, there is an illegal virtual reality world known as V-club where people go to let off steam in violent and hedonistic ways. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  Series 1, Episode 1, Pilot

Initial Air Date: 2 February 2010

Hecate’s appearance: Known as the colonial Goddess of the Underworld, Hecate appears briefly on the stage of the dancing club as a dancer. She appears as a human woman who can change her head into the form of a wolf, which she does while a man is killing a virtual human in the middle of the club floor. 

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Vicky Lambert 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.14

Movie: Hecate, 2013? 

Summary of movie: This short movie is about when a young girl finds a book titled Hecate, she and her friends attempt to summon her. 

Hecate’s role: While Hecate’s role is unclear, it is implied in the trailer that Hecate is malicious and associated with magic. 

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Adrianna Ceara 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.15

TV Show: Atlantis 

Summary of the show: Jason, a modern day man is sent back in time to the lost city of Atlantis where he makes new friends (Pythagoras and Hercules). Together they embark on adventures sometimes with his crush Ariadne and often against her stepmother Pasiphae.

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  Series 1 

Episode 3, A Boy of No Consequence

Episode 6, The Song of the Siren

Episode 11, Hunger Pangs 

Initial Air Date: 12 October 2013; 2 November 2013; 14 December 2013

Hecate’s role: Pasiphae and Circe and the Witches of Colchis serve Hecate. As Goddess of Witchcraft, Pasiphae invokes her and we see Hecate’s imagery on her altar (episode 3). Circe uses Hecate as a sign that Jason must battle Pasiphae (episode 6) in one episode. Hecate is mentioned extensively as Jason stumbles across a feast and upon eating it finds himself transforming into one of Hecate’s animals as retribution by her (episode 11). 

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.16

TV Show: Grimm 

Summary of the show: American cop Nick Burkhardt is a ‘Grimm’ descended from one of the Grimm Brothers giving him the ability to know when someone is a ‘wesen’ a type of creature that it is his duty to rid the world of. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  Series 3, Episode 6, Stories we tell our young 

Initial Air Date: 6 December 2013

Hecate’s appearance: She appears only in image on the gate of the compound belonging to the Wesen Council. Her link to Grimm and wesen even though it is implied that Hecate maybe linked to the wesen. The image that appears in the shot is a pre-shot before a scene involving the wesen council in Vienna. 

Image: Screenshot by P.W.  

Extra Notes: The gates are from the Peace Palace, The Hague, Netherlands. The Carnegie Foundation donated a money to Germany’s government for the restoration of the gates of the Peace Palace. After the gates were designed by the German architect Bruno Möhring (1863-1929), it was given as a gift to the Peace Palace in 1912. It is made of iron and bronze, and decorated in copper.  

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ENTRY NUMBER: 2.17

TV Show: American Horror Story: Coven 

Summary of the show: This particular series centres on the drama surrounding witches. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title: Series 3, Episode 10 The Magical Delights of Stevie Nicks, 

Initial Air Date: 8 January 2014 

Hecate’s mention: In a ritual, Hecate is invoked by two of the witches. They use a maze, candles, mice, money, and this invocation: “Come to me, Hecate. Mother of Angels, Cosmic World Soul. Comment, infirmabitur, submergetur. Praecipita, strangulare percusserite in code suo proposition. Comment infirmabitur submergetur. Praecipita strangulare percusserite in code us propositio. Bring them to me in a weakened state. Make me strong and cunning, so that I may destroy them.”

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.18

TV Show: Penny Dreadful 

Summary of the show: The show brings together an array of characters from 19th century fiction (such as Frankenstein, Bram Stokers’ vampires, and Hyde and Jekyll) including ones exclusively for this show as they fight against different forms of evil in the 19th century London. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title: Series 2, Episode 4, Evil Spirits in Heavenly Places

Initial Air Date: 24 May 2015

Hecate’s mention: The Goddess Hecate is mentioned by the character Hecate Poole as she explains the origins of her name to Ethan Chandler. She explains that she was named after a Greek sea Goddess. Hecate Poole herself is a witch being introduced into the show by her mother Evelyn and together they are the villains.  

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.19

TV Show: Salem 

Summary of the show: The show is about the drama and politics of the witches in Salem in the 1600’s. It focuses on Mary Sibley who becomes a witch and ends up controlling the witch trials, and want to exact revenge on the town that destroyed her family. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  

Series 2, Episode 12, Midnight Never Come

Initial Air Date: 21 June 2015

Summary of the episode: Knowing that the ritual will ultimately kill a young child, so the Devil can possess him, the child is protected by various people. But eventually the ritual is performed. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is invoked as part of a spell to open up the entrance to Hell so that the Devil may come forth and possess the boy: “Let the fire of Lucifer and Hecate’s love burn the flesh of this child of serpent and man”– Countess Von Marburg.  

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.20

TV Show: Lore Olympus 

Summary of the show: This web-cartoon is the story of Persephone and Hades in a modern day setting. 

Series Number, Episode Number and Title: 

Series 1-

Episode 33 Your Royal Majesty

Episode 34 Mind the Gap

Episode 41 Return of the Princess

Episode 49  Eye for the Eye

Episode 55 The Tour part 3

Initial Air Dates: 13 October 2018; 18 October 2018; 8 December 2018; 9 February 2019; 20 April 2019

Hecate’s role: Hecate is the Goddess of Witchcraft who works in the Underworld keeping things running while doing so gracefully and fashionable. While she can be blunt, she is helpful to both Hades and Persephone, and she develops a great deal of sympathy for Persephone. 

Character played by/voiced by (if animation): Unable to determine 

Image: Image from Wiki website

ENTRY NUMBER: 2.21

TV Show: The Chilling Adventures of Sabrina

Summary of the show: The show follows Sabrina (a young teenage witch) as she deals with magical issues and normal high school mundanity while living with her aunts Hilda and Zelda.

Series Number, Episode Number and Title:  

Series 3, Episode 8, Sabrina Is Legend

Initial Air Date: 24 January 2020

Hecate’s Role: In limbo, both the aunts are guided by a family relative to see how the witch’s and thus the coven’s powers can be restored after being taking away. They are led to Hecate as the Triple Goddess (Maiden, Mother, Crone). Upon returning, one of the aunts knows what to do to resurrect the other one and restore power. So, she invokes Hecate:

“It is said that whenever you call on the Triple Goddess, she comes to you. As much as I ignored her, put my faith in lesser gods, signed my name in other books, she still came to me when I needed her most. When I wandered, lost in the Nether Realm, it was she who led me back to the material world. We call you, Hecate. We call on you now, maiden, in your unbounded potential. We call on you, mother, in all your divine power. We call on you, crone, in your arcane wisdom. We are descended of all maidens, mothers, and crones. And so, when we call on the three-in-one, we call on all witches stretching back from the beginning of time to the end of days. We call on ourselves, the powers that have been denied us. Imbue us with them, Hecate, and we shall pray to you morning, noon, and night. And we shall live to honor thy three faces, thy three forms. Dark mother, keeper of the key to the door between worlds, we summon thee.”

In the aftermath, the coven is renamed as the Order of Hecate.

3- Comics

ENTRY NUMBER: 3.1

Comic World: Marvel Comics, Marvel Publishing 

Issue Name (Number), Date: 

Ms Marvel (Volume 1, 11), November 1977

Ms Marvel (Volume 1, 12), December 1977

Ms Marvel (Volume 1, 13), January 1978

Summary of series: Ms Marvel/ Carol Danvers is a superhero fighting various villains, having adventures and saving the world.

Hecate’s role: Hecate is neutral in this world. After the Titan vs Olympian war, Zeus spares Hecate and allows her to keep her title as Goddess of the Underworld. However, Hecate becomes the greatest sorcerer of Olympus after the abduction of Persephone. She starts a line of witches on earth revealing the secrets of magic giving her the title of Witch Queen, and eventually she ends up on earth with amnesia not knowing her identity. Eventually her memory is restored, and she pretty much has her own agenda. She is also portrayed as having three heads. 

Image: From Marvunapp Appendix

Image result for Class of the TItans Hecate

ENTRY NUMBER: 3.2 

Comic World: Hellboy, Dark Horse 

Issue Name (Number), Date: 

Wake the Devil (Issues 7- -11), June-October 1996

Conqueror Worm (Issues 17-20), May-August 2001

The Island (Issue 23, 24), June-July 2002

Darkness Calls (Issues 27- 32), May-November 2007

B.P.R.D The Devil You Know (Issues 6,7,10,14,15) May 2018-April 2019 

Summary of series: Hellboy is a superhero who is also a fallen angel continually fighting the forces of darkness. Cross reference with data entry 2.12. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is a definitive villain. She is described as the Goddess of Witches, Queen of the Dogs and Goddess of Crossroads. She was born from the Shadows, and led to the fall of the Hyperborean empire. She has a clear association with dogs, she created the first vampire and is associated with the Lamia. She is reborn several times, and continuously seeks Hellboy as she claims that together, they will bring about the Apocalypse. Her appearance is Gorgon and snake like, and she can’t survive in the sunlight after being cursed. 

Key quotes: “I gave her one half of my soul, which she hid in the roots of Yggdrasil, the World Tree, so that my spirit, least would always be safe” Chapter 3, Wake the Devil. 

Images: From Wake the Devil. Photos by Hazel. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 3.3 

Comic World: DC Comics, Publishers 

Issue Name (Number), Date: 

Mister Miracle (Volume 1, 21), December 1977

The Goddess from Hell, Superman Family (Volume 1, 218), May 1981

Wonder Woman (Volume 2, 19), August 1988

War of the Gods (Volume 1, 4) December 1991 

Superman/ Silver Banshee (Volume 1, 1) December 1998 

Superman/ Silver Banshee (Volume 1, 2) January 1999 

Countdown to Final Crisis: Origin of Circe (Volume 1, 12), February 2008 

Herc (Volumes 3-6), 2011  

Wonder Woman (Volume 1, 612), August 2011

Scarlet Witch (Volume 2, Issue 2), March 2016

Wonder Woman Meets Hecate New 52 (Volume 4, 49), April 2016

Wonder Woman and The Justice League Dark: The Witching Hour, May 2019

Summary of series: The DC world features a range of superheroes that often cross paths and come across ancient Gods, creatures and characters from different planets, even alternative universes. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is the known as the Goddess of Wilderness and Childbirth, who is associated with magic, especially moon magic. It appears she is neutral with regards to Wonder Women, despite being the patron Goddess of Circe is Wonder Woman’s nemesis. But in Superman Family, when one character asks Hecate for something, she requests Supergirl’s’ soul. Hecate even possesses one of the characters. 

Extra Note: On a side note, also in the DC Universe is a common three-some known as The Hecateae. These usually are three women who must all appear at the same time. They are also known as The Kindly Ones, The Three Sisters and The Fates. At different times, their individual names differ. They appear in comics, such as Sandman by Neil Gaiman. However, Hecate as a character is never mentioned. 

Images: From Amazon Wonder Woman and the Justice League Dark: The Witching Hour and Comic Newbies Wonder Woman Volume 4

ENTRY NUMBER: 3.4

Comic Series/Graphic Novel: Harry Dresden Files, Roc Books 

Issue Name (Number), Date: 

Welcome to the Jungle, October 2008 

Skin Game, May 2014

Summary of series: Harry Dresden is a private investigator and wizard who investigates supernatural goings on in Chicago. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate herself does not appear, but is a character that is mentioned throughout. In Welcome to the Jungle, Hecatean hags are introduced as villains who are part of the cult of Hecate. In Skin Game, the characters come across a statue of Hecate as three women whom Harry Dresden mistakes for the Faerie Queens. Hecate is associated here with crossroads, witchcraft, death, night, and herbalism. Upon meeting Hades, he explains that Hecate was helping out Persephone after he married her. 

Images: From Harry Dresden Wiki

ENTRY NUMBER: 3.5

Comic World: Grimm Fairy Tales, Zenescope Entertainment

Issue Name (Number), Date: 

MiniseriesAngel: One Shot (Issue 1), June 2012

Grimm Fairy Tales Annual 2012 (Issue 1), June 2012

Presents, Grimm Fairy Tales Universe, The Eye of the Storm (Issue 1), Oct. 2012

Best of Zenescope Special Edition (Issue 1), 1 March 2013,

Unleashed Daybreaks (Issue 1, Part 3), April 2013

Miniseries, Grimm Fairy Tales Presents Godstorm (Issue 3) December 2012

Miniseries, Grimm Fairy Tales Presents Godstorm (Issue 4) February 2013

Presents, Grimm Fairy Tales Universe 2013 (Volume 1, Issue 1), June 2013

Annual 2013, Grimm Fairy Tales Unleashed (Issue 3), June 2013

Crossovers, Grimm Fairy Tales Unleashed (Volume 1, Issue 1), July 2013

Summary of series: Grimm Fairy Tale comics are a selection of fairy tale stories that have modern twists or expanded stories. It showcases characters from different tales and mythologies. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is known as Angel/ Heather Angelos in this world, where at first, she is evil and is also Zeus’ daughter. But after she was cast into the Underworld where she comforted Persephone, she changed her ways. She is reborn on earth under a new alias where she now makes amends working in justice. Her first appearance is in Angel: One Shot, which is about her exclusively. She is known as the Goddess of Magic. 

ENTRY NUMBER: 3.6

Comic World: Sketch Comics/ Web Comic (By Zelda C.  Wang), Lulu.com (Patreon)

Issue Name (Number), Date: 

Treasure, October 2015  

Rebirth, ?

Summary of series: These web comics only available in full from Patreon are short stories about various Ancient Greek characters.

Hecate’s role: Hecate has powers of the earth, sea and sky, she also watches those who pass on, and she is summoned at the crossroads. Her appearance incorporates aspects of her parents and grandparents. She has star markings on her face inherited from her mother, and a scaly webbed pattern on the other side. representing her oceanic lineage.  

Images: From Myth Comic Wiki and Zelda C. Wang’s Tumblr Preview

ENTRY NUMBER: 3.7

Comic series: God is Dead, Avatar Press 

Issue Name (Number), Date: 

Volume 5, Issue 28 February 2015

Volume 5, Issue 29 February 2015

Volume 5, Issue 30 March 2015

Volume 6, Issue 32 April 2015

Volume, 6 Issue 33 April 2015

Summary of series: This series is about various gods from various pantheons fighting each other to take control of earth. Fair warning- this comic is adult and quite extreme where nearly all the Gods are bad-asses to a high degree!   

Hecate’s role: Hecate appears with three faces with the different aspects of Maiden, Mother, and Crone. She is the Goddess of the Forest, the Moon, and Womanhood. It appears she may also be a bit of a man-hater. 

Images: From Read Comic Online: God is Dead

4- Games

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.1

Game Series: (Shin) Megami Tensei (abbrev. MT)

Game/ Date of release: Digital Devil Story/ 11 September 1987

Game/ Date of release: Shin MT II/ 18 March 1994

Game/ Date of release: Shin MT if… / Hazama’s Chapter/ 28 October 1994

Game/ Date of release: MT II: Spiral Nemesis/ 19 February 1995

Game/ Date of release: Last Bible III/ 4 March 1995 

Game/ Date of release: Kyuuyaku Megami Tensei/ 31 March 1995

Game/ Date of release: Ronde / 30 March 1997

Game/ Date of release: Shin MT NINE/ 5 December 2002

Game/ Date of release: Shin MT IMAGINE/ 30 March 2007

Game/ Date of release: Shin MT: 20XX Devil’s Colosseum/ 28 April 2008 (mobile phone game)

Game/ Date of release: Devil Survivor 2/ 28 July 2011

Game/ Date of release: Devil Survivor Overclocked/ 23 August 2011 

Game/ Date of release: Persona Q2: New Cinema Labyrinth- Lovers Arcana/ 29 November 2018  

Game/ Date of release: Persona 5: Royal- Lovers Arcana/ TO BE RELEASED 31 Oct 2019

Developer: Atlus

Mode: Single-player

Genre: Role-playing/ Horror

Platform: Computer and Mobile

Summary of game: These games are based on the novel Megamei Tensei by Aya Nishitani: A human player who is unable to use magic can summon and control demons either through a computer or similar cyberpunk element. For each game (which has different landscapes e.g. religious or apocalyptical settings), the main player Akemi Nakajima must build his demon army. This will allow him to reach his destination in whichever game/landscape he inhabits. While the demons are divided according to light, dark and neutral, they can also be merged to create new demons. The player can persuade demons to join his party, or to fight them.  

Hecate’s role: Hecate is a dark demon (also known as tyrant). She has had various forms, abilities, levels and appearances throughout the various types of games. She rules the Mazurka Corridor in Megamei Tensei (MT). In SMT II, she can only be defeated when encountered at the New Moon, and she is referenced in Devil Summoner Soul Hackers in the offensive spell Full Moon Queen which inflicts most damage during the Full Moon. In IMAGINE, she can only be acquired by a triple fusion. She is referenced in Devil Survivor 2 as the Goddess of the Underworld and maybe an aspect of Persephone. She oversees the dead and seeks revenge on those who incur the wrath of the Gods. She is the mistress of the Furies and associated with the moon. In a later game is depicted as having three heads; a dog, a lion and a horse. In Persona 5, she is referenced as the Goddess of the crossroads, witchcraft, closely associated with dogs, and it is mentioned that she was included in the play Macbeth.

Image: From the Megami Tensei Wiki (added by user A1GIS) 

http://vignette2.wikia.nocookie.net/megamitensei/images/1/1c/HecateSMT2.jpg/revision/latest/scale-to-width-down/1000?cb=20080806041753

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.2

Game: Yu Gi Oh  

Released: 1999

Developer: Konami (Japan), Upper Deck Company (USA)

Mode: 2-4 players

Genre: Trick taking  

Platform: Trading card game 

Summary of game: This game is based on the TV show Toei Yu Gi Oh – cross reference with data entry 2.8. The goal of the game is to get the most life points and win by placing cards into a field, and then battling an opponents’ monsters and defending attacks. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate appears in three separate cards as Red, Violet and Yellow. Her speciality in all forms is black magic, specifically anything that results in a negative effect or involving necromancy. Altogether, all three aspects form the Goddess of Wickedness and when played all together, the Gorgon card can be played. 

Image: Images from the Yu Gi Oh Fandom Wiki 

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.3

Game: Age of Empires Spin-off: Age of Mythology

Released: 30 October 2002

Developer: Ensemble Studios

Platform: Microsoft Windows and OS

Mode: Multi-player and Single-player

Genre: Real-time strategy

Summary of game: The goal in Age of Empires here is to build a civilisation by creating armies, constructing buildings and fighting other territories all of which they do with the resources they gather. Age of Mythology is a war game where at the start, players choose one of five cultures (Greek, Egyptian, Norse, Atlantean or Chinese) and a major deity. Once they upgrade, they can choose a minor deity. They use also use resources to gain favour from the gods. Each deity has a unique magical power, technologies they oversee and myth units (which are mythical creatures that fight on their behalf and help those who worship them). 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is part of the Atlantean Pantheon of the Mythic Age which is the last of four ages (following on from Archaic, Classical and Heroic). Her pantheon includes other Titans. For example, Kronos, Ouranos and Gaia in the Archaic; Prometheus, Leto and Oceanus in Classical; Hyperion, Rhea and Theia in Heroic. With her in the Mythic Age are also Helios and Atlas. Her main power is creating the Tartarian Gate, which can be erected anywhere and from it Tartarian spawn are created which are hostile to all others. Her technologies are: rejuvenating her own mythic creatures, the use of asper blood which increases the damage inflicted by her mythic creatures, and celerity which reduces the training time of her mythic creatures. Her mythic units/ creatures are the Lampades, which can turn other player’s mythic units against their former allies. 

Image: Added by Age of Empires wiki user 3groscod from Wiki Page

http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/ageofempires/images/e/e7/Hekate.jpg/revision/latest?cb=20111015153857

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.4

Game: Fallout 3 aka Van Buren 

Released: Cancelled before release (Cancelled: 2003)

Developer: Black Isle Studios

Mode: Single-player

Genre: Role playing video   

Platform: Computer- Microsoft Windows

Summary of game: This game was supposed to become Fallout 3, but the parent company was laid off therefore abandoning the game. 

In this game that is set in the future 2253 in the American South West, the character is a prisoner who can decide whether they are innocent or a criminal. They wake up in a cell they don’t recognise and once the prison is attacked, the player escapes with robots attempting to come after them. The goal is to find out what happened, why did they wake up in a different cell and why the robots are after them. 

Hecate’s mention: Hecate is a human character who eventually becomes a goddess. She was the sole survivor from when her tribe (the Twisted Hairs) was killed by another tribe as revenge. She wandered the desert looking for refuge, was turned away from everyone and eventually went insane. A scientist by the name of Diana took her in. When Hecate reveals to Diana that she was referred to as the Dark Mother, Diana mentions that her name is from the Goddess of the Full Moon and therefore she names Hecate from the Goddess of the Dark Moon. She then mentors Hecate. Hecate later finds home in a place known as Ouroboros with her new tribal ‘look’. Her servants are known as the Daughters of Hecate, her army is the Vipers, and she believes herself to be a goddess. The player can interact with Hecate by making a choice on whether to help her (by agreeing to destroy the tribe that she wants revenge on), or to hinder her (by exposing her as a madwoman instead of a goddess. 

Image: From the Fallout Wiki (added by user Porter21) even though the image was only a concept design in the design document. 

http://vignette4.wikia.nocookie.net/fallout/images/6/60/VB_DD06_npc_Daughter_of_Hecate.jpg/revision/latest?cb=20100119005104

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.5

Game: The Bakugan Attack 

Released: 2006

Developer: Takara Tomy/  Sega Toys/ Spin Master

Mode: Multi-player

Genre: Trick Taking 

Platform: Card 

Summary of game: The game is based on a TV show where creatures known as the Bakugans are waking up from their slumber. At the same time, earth is merging with a different planet and the aliens from there are trying to invade. Some people known as the Battle Brawlers can acquire the help of the Bakugans to fight the aliens. However, some Bakugans can be antagonists or benevolent. The goal of the game is to win the gate cards. By using the points and abilities on the cards, Bakugans can fight each other over a gate card. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is one of the antagonist cards known as darkus. She is known as the Goddess of Necromancy. She is a shapeshifter with the ability to change into various forms including a dragon and a viper. She is also the guardian of a Battle Brawler known as Selene. 

Image: Image from The Bakugan Hangout Fandom 

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.6

Game: Cyclades 

Released: 2009

Developer: Bruno Cathala and Ludovic Maublanc

Mode: 2-5

Genre: Strategy   

Platform: Board game 

Summary of game: This is an expansion/ build a civilisation game based on the Cyclades Islands of Greece. To win this game, a player must have two metropolises. If two players both have two metropolises, then the player with the most gold pieces wins. Each player bids for a deity in each turn using their gold pieces and with it, each deity offers control or action over a particular aspect. For example, Poseidon enables players to build their seafaring fleet, Athena enables players to build universities, Zeus enables players to build their religion, and Ares enables players to build their troops. After each player has bid, they proceed to build their metropolis piece by piece. For each deity, there is a mythological creature which has variable power that can be summoned only in each turn. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is part of the Hades expansion and allows players to gain a priestess card (to boost the religion) and two columns that allows players to connect two nearby islands by way of an underground tunnel to enable troop movement.  

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.7

Game: Gods Rush 

Released: 16 October 2014

Developer: IGG Inc. 

Mode: Multi- player 

Genre: Strategy

Platform: Mobile 

Summary of game: Players must save the world by confronting the evils unleashed when Pandora’s box was opened. Players can gather gods, heroes, demigods and beasts to save Greece. Deities can be gathered and evolved using a variety of tools, and skills can be developed to defeat other players.

Hecate’s role: Hecate’s specialism is in magical attacks. She can summon spirits and unleashes a beam both of which can damage her enemies. She can silence any enemies and increases any magical attack. 

Image: Image from Gods Rush Forum

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.8

Game: Blood Brothers 2 

Released: 5 October 2016

Developer: DeNA Corp

Mode: How many players

Genre: Strategy Role playing

Platform: PC and mobile 

Summary of game: In a fantasy world and as the sequel to Blood Brothers (where vampires wrought war), peace is shattered. The goal here is return peace to the land of Arnashia which is inhabited by a range of species, one of which is known as the Goblin. Goblins are described as a crude race that live beneath the Eastern lands. 

Hecate’s role: Hecate is a goblin and appears as two versions: Of the Cauldron and The First Witch. She has the abilities to be strong in hand to hand combat, but weak against cavalry. 

Image: Image from Blood Brothers 2 Fandom

ENTRY NUMBER: 4.9

Game Series: Assassins Creed

Game/ Date of release: Origins/ 27 October 2017

Game/ Date of release: Odyssey/ 5 October 2018

Developer: Ubisoft

Mode: Single player 

Genre: Role playing game 

Platform: PC, PS4, and Xbox One

Summary of game: In Assassins Creed, you enter the ancient world where the goal is to just live out a life of your choosing. In Origins, it is set in Ancient Egypt and in Odyssey, it is set in Ancient Greece. Monsters can be won, romantic relationships can be forged, the Gods communicate with you and you can discover new places (with downloadable content). 

Hecate’s role: Gods as a species are known as Isu in these games. Here, Hecate is the goddess of magic, ghosts and necromancy who has an affiliation with the Underworld and Persephone. 

In Origins, she is only referenced and there is a statue of her. While she is known as The Hidden One and is conflated with Amunet, her name is never mentioned specifically. She has a shrine in the Cave of Whispers where above the altar there is a three form statue of Hecate. With it appears the inscription “You who have power over the heavens, earth and sea. Daughter of the Titan Perses. Protector of the wild places, goddess of the crossroads. Gatekeeper between the world. The son of Cronos honours you above all and shared his diving gifts with you. Grant us your protection and wisdom”. 

In Odyssey, in the main game the character comes across a temple where Hecate with torches features in a 5th century mural. The character meets a ship’s captain who says to the them: When Nyx blinds you, seek Hekate. When the darkness surrounds you, always seek the light.” In downloadable content known as The Fate of Atlantis: The Fields of Elysium, the player interacts with Hecate to overcome an obstacle plaguing its inhabitants. In a side quest known as Heart of Stone, the player meets a witch who claims to be priestess of Hecate: “Let me help, I’m a witch of Hecate, goddess of witchcraft and magic.” 

Image: From the Assassins Creed Wiki Also see Hecate in Elysium video  

Chapter 4- Results

INTRODUCTION

This section will first look at the major themes arising from the data. It will first provide an overview of Hecate’s role and then it will explore major themes. Following on from that, the questions posed in chapter 3 will be addressed. Minor themes will then be explored, and finally one case study (one book entry) will be looked at.

OVERVIEW OF HECATE’S ROLE

Generally, the Goddess Hecate has a dominant role throughout the data. She appears as a powerful goddess in both what she does and says, and she comes across as someone who is in control. There are however, two exceptions to this- in 1.3 and 1.25. In 1.3, Hecate is kidnapped and used for her magic by others in New Orleans, and in 1.25, Adrian Preskott and his friends are attempting to help her. On the surface, these exceptions are rather unusual given Hecate’s powerful role both in fiction and in reality. However, it does appear that these two exceptions are designed for plot purposes: In 1.3, the story is about the dire consequences of kidnapping a powerful deity in the first place. In 1.25 the audience the book is intended for are clearly children, and thus with Adrian Preskott and his friends undergoing their heroic adventure, the story serves to empower its target audience.  

There are three types of roles that Hecate has in the media, which answers our first question posed: How variable is Hecate’s role in a plot? Is she essential or complementary? The first type of role is where Hecate is integral and extremely important to the plot. In cases like these, she is either mentioned or appears throughout. A story may explicitly be about Hecate, such as in the case of 1.10 and 1.22. She can also have a significant effect on the protagonist, as in 1.4 and 1.19. A story may be about a devotee who frequently prays to her where she might appear as in the case of 1.11, or does not appear (2.1). 

The second type of role Hecate has is a complementary one. Here she only appears or is mentioned when necessary to drive the plot forward. Good examples of this are usually one book within a series of books, or one or two episodes within a TV series. Instances where this occurs includes 1.7, 1.9, 2.9, 2.11, 2.12 and 2.21. This type of role is quite common for comics and games where she is one character of a group. For example, she tends to belong to a particular race or species within games and comics offering general powers that she shares with a group she belongs to, but she will also have specialist powers. It is because of this that she would only appear when necessary- either to provide for a story arc (within comics) or to offer specific powers (within games). 

The final type of role Hecate has is known as a ‘minor mention’ where she is mentioned but only in passing usually in reference to something else. Often, she is referred to as a Goddess of Witches or she may be attributed to being the origin of witches and/or vampires, such as in the case of 1.14. She can also be referred to as briefly liaising with other demons and creatures that appear in story-lines e.g. 2.4. Anywhere where Hecate is called upon in a chant or a hymn (2.5, 2.7, 2.17, 2.19) or in general conversation (1.5, 1.12, 2.10, 2.18), or she appears briefly either as herself (2.13), or as an image (2.16) can all be classed into this final type of role. 

MAJOR THEMES

Hecate as the Goddess of Witchcraft

One significant and key theme throughout all the types of data is the reference to Hecate as the Goddess of Witchcraft and her association with magic, witches and particularly necromancy. Reference to this aspect of her can be direct where she might be described or invoked as the Goddess of Witchcraft, whether witches are part of the story (for example 1.21 or 2.21) or not (2.12). Witches themselves are also calling upon Hecate when they are undertaking magic even when they are not referring to Hecate as the Goddess of Witchcraft (2.15, 2.17). It seems to be fairly common that comic and games data include references to her as the Goddess of Witchcraft but do not feature witches (3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.2, 4.5, 4.7). It is striking that in some cases, Hecate is often described as the origin of witchcraft (1.20, 3.1). 

Alternatively, a story may feature magic but witches are not mentioned or included at all. A good example of this is 1.7 where the character Lou-Ann (in the Percy Jackson world) is Hecate’s daughter with the ability to do magic, but isn’t described as a witch. Another alternative is a story which features witches and Hecate but doesn’t involve calling Hecate as the Goddess of Witchcraft per se. This is the case of 2.5 where the sisters in Practical Magic invoke Hecate for her necromancy powers. Another good example of this is 2.18 (Penny Dreadful). The villains in this show are witches, and one of them is named after the Goddess Hecate- Hecate Poole, daughter of Evelyn Poole. Clearly, she names her daughter after the Goddess, but Hecate Poole instead refers to the Goddess Hecate as a Goddess of the Sea (which she is [Einalian] but she is also a goddess of lots of other things too). Another example of this is 2.9, where Hecate’s connection to witchcraft is not explicitly stated in the show. There are some cases however, where witches are named after Hecate (Fire Witch data not included). While this project is exclusively about the Goddess Hecate’s fictional portrayal, and not about characters that are named after her, it is interesting that witches are frequently named after her. 

Hecate as a villain/antagonist

It is quite noticeable that a considerable amount of data entries features Hecate as a villain/antagonist. This topic does not include instances where devotees are the villains. There has to be an explicit connection between Hecate and her evil intentions and her desire for it. Examples where the devotees are villains or have evil intentions but still mention Hecate where she is not labelled as a villain include: 1.1 (where the narrator observes potential ethically questionable actions but draws similarities with Hecate), 2.2, 2.3 (which is the movie version of 1.1). and 2.5. For Hecate to be labelled as a villain for the purposes of this project, she herself has to have evil intentions. While books, TV and games have a clear distinction as to whether she is a villain or not, the comic world has a more fluid take. Her comic character is more flexible; where she is neither strictly helpful nor damaging. Instead it appears that she has her own agenda. 

For example, in 3.1 (Marvel) for a time she does what she wants and interacts with humans illegally giving them the ability to do magic. Zeus punishes her and she becomes a villain. But eventually, she changes her ways and appears to settle a bit. In 3.2 (DC) Hecate is neutral towards Wonder Woman (even though Wonder Woman’s arch nemesis is one of Hecate’s devotees- Circe) but she is antagonistic towards Supergirl. In 3.5 (Grimm), her background is somewhat similar to 3.1 where she is evil, but once cast into the Underworld, she changes her ways. 3.7 is a unique comic compared to the others. In this all the deities have their own agenda; they are all aggressive and often swearing. However, a warning: this comic is for adults only. Hecate in this comic is a bit of a “bad-ass” not taking fools lightly. She can be loyal and helpful towards women, but she does appear to be a bit of man-hater. As a side note, it is unsurprising that her appearance in the comic world is often sexualised (3.1, 3.3, 3.5) due to the nature of how women are illustrated in comics (Jehanzeb, 2019). 

Common Themes 

There are several common themes that stand out in the data. These are facts about the Goddess Hecate that are accurate based on historical, mythological, literary and archaeological records. They include knowledge and associations with the Goddess Hecate that are well known amongst the community and her devotees. These common themes that are generally mentioned several times throughout the data set are:

The moon (specifically the Dark Moon)

Dogs (especially black dogs)

The fact that she has three bodies/faces (with a link to shapeshifting)

The crossroads

Dreams and the night

The Underworld as her home 

Persephone’s abduction

Her parents

Vampires (even if the Lamia are not mentioned) 

It is because of the frequency of these mentions that for the purposes of this study, these facts have been quantified/defined as “standard information”. This therefore allows the data entries to be further categorised. Going beyond “standard information” includes information that is mentioned only by one of two data entries. Such information can include: 

Her changing sides in the war of the Titans vs Gods, and who she fights in this war and the consequences (Zeus allowing her power)

Her extended family and associated creatures

Associated symbols (e.g. key), plants and animals other than dogs

Associations with deities (particularly lunar deities)

That some of devotees are vegetarian

Specific names of her mythological worshippers 

One particular theme that has been noticed across a few data entries is the Maiden, Mother, Crone (MMC) aspect applied to the Goddess Hecate. Given Hecate’s three bodies/faces, it is fairly easy in the media to apply the MMC to her. Cases where this occurs in the data set include 1.3 (Krewe of Hecate), 2.21 (The Chilling Adventures of Sabrina), maybe 3.4 (where comic images suggest it may be applied), and 3.7 (God is Dead). The use of the MMC concept has clearly been derived from neo-paganism, as it is well known that in Ancient Greece Hecate has been described as a maiden (d’Este, 2010). For a discussion about Hecate and the application of the MMC, see d’Este (2010-2018b). 

Vampires

Hecate’s association with vampires is quite clear when looking at the dataset- 1.12, 1.14, and especially Hellboy 2.12 (TV episode) and the comic (3.2) which mentions the Lamia. Her association with the Lamia is well known amongst devotees and the community (Hazel, 2016). The Lamia are known to be vampiric creatures even though they are never explicitly called vampires in ancient literature. But the Lamia have had an important role to play in the evolution of the fictional vampire. Hecate’s association with the Underworld, magic, necromancy and with blood especially in ancient magical spells (d’Este, 2010) could have connected Hecate with vampires in the fictional world. 

QUESTIONS ARISING FROM MAJOR THEMES 

Some data go into much more detail about her than others. But over time, has this data become more frequent?

After quantifying/defining what is meant by “standard information”, the data can now be categorised according to the level of accuracy they contain about the Goddess Hecate. The question here is whether the level of accuracy about the Goddess Hecate in fictional works has increased over time. More information and more books about the Goddess Hecate are being produced. Combined with archaeological, historical and classical literary developments, could it be possible that the fictional portrayal of Hecate has evolved alongside the increased publications about her? To examine this, levels of information need to be first established. Using the definition of “standard information” as before (“Standard information” refers to facts/ associations about the Goddess Hecate that is widely known within the community, but is also gleaned from historical sources), the levels can be constructed. The levels are thus outlined in Table 1. Inaccuracies here are defined as information usually made up specifically for plot purposes. For example, in 1.25, Hecate’s dogs are described as previously belonging to Zeus. Or in 2.4, where a female demon is passing souls onto Hecate after petrifying them. 

Table 1 

Table showing the different levels of how the fictional Goddess Hecate is incorporated into the media data entries. 

LevelCodeDescription
1                (1)She appears &/or is mentioned & there are 1/2 small accurate details, but other details about her are inaccurate. 
1+ Villain   (1V)As level 1, but she is also portrayed as a villain/evil
2                (2)She appears &/or is mentioned & there are 1/2 small details (standard or not) & there are no inaccurate facts, or any other information. 
2 + Villain  (2V)As level 2, but she also is portrayed as a villain/evil
3(3)She appears &/or is mentioned & 3+ pieces of ‘standard information’ is mentioned
3 + Villain  (3V)As level 3, but she also is portrayed as a villain/evil
4                (4)She appears &/or is mentioned & information beyond standard is mentioned. 
4 + Villain  (4V)As level 4, but she also is portrayed as a villain/evil

The data was then categorised into each of these corresponding levels. In some cases, not enough information from data was acquired due to not being able to obtain the source to input details into the next table, or as in one case only her image is used but she is not mentioned at all. Therefore, some data will be missing in Table 2. 

Table 2  

Table showing how the analysed data is categorised according to the levels in Table 1. 

Level11+V22+V33+V44+V
Books1.10
1.25





1.141.2
1.5
1.6
1.12
1.13
1.18
1.20
1.24
1.261.3
1.4
1.9
1.15

1.7
1.8
1.19
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.11
TV2.13

2.6
2.8
2.9
2.5
2.17
2.18
2.19

2.20
2.21

2.12.11
2.12
Comics


3.7





3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

3.13.2
Games 
4.74.2
4.8
4.3
4.4
4.5

4.9
4.1

It is worth highlighting some of the level 4 data that go beyond “standard information”. 1.7 – the Percy Jackson world goes into considerable detail about Hecate; her extended family, the Lamia, Empousae, Scylla, and her role in the Titan vs God War. In 1.21, Hecate’s Own, devotees actually have a tattoo of Hecate’s Wheel, and in 1.11 Hecate’s Glory, even though her devotees are dedicated to evil, they are all vegetarian. This brings to mind the famous vegetarian Hecate devotee Empedocles (d’Este & Rankine, 2009). Hellboy (2.12 and 3.2) use a famous plaque that comes from a Roman Seal currently located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City (see image alongside data entry). Hellboy also amusingly asks Hecate “aren’t you missing a couple of heads?” clearly referencing her three faces/body aspect. Several data entries name famous mythological devotees e.g. Medea (2.1), and Pasiphae and Circe in Atlantis (2.15). As one of the games, Assassins Creed deserves a special mention with its detailed inscriptions outlining her parentage, dominion over the earth, sea and sky, and her association with being the light that illuminates our personal darkness: “When Nyx blinds you, seek Hekate. When the darkness surrounds you, always seek the light.”

Following on from dividing the data, a timetable was created illustrating the amount of data released in each year compared to the frequency between each level. This will answer the question: does level 4 data appear more frequently in recent years than the other levels?   

Table 3

Table showing the amount of data produced for the year for each level

YearLevel 1Level 2Level 3Level 4
1963


1
1987


1
1977

11
1996
1
1
199831

19991


2000


1
2002
1

2003
1

2005


1
2006
111
2007


1
2008

1
2009
1

20101
1
20111


2012

11
201312

2014111
2015131
20161


2017
1
1
2018

11
201912
2
20201
TOTAL NUMBER OF DATA11161013

From the data in Table 3, it is clear that production of media in level 4 (information that goes beyond “standard”) does not differ in frequency when compared to the other levels when looking at data produced in the past 5-10 years. So, the data that goes into more detail and remains accurate about Hecate has not become more frequent at all in later years. It appears for now that when fictional works are released that include the Goddess Hecate, they won’t necessarily be accurate or give more information beyond the “standard” i.e. moon, Underworld, crossroads, dogs, dreams, night time etc. 

Hecate is often a villain or is evil in some data, but over the course of time does she lose her villain status because more information about her is coming out? 

To examine this question, the data where she is a villain (+V) is also placed in a timetable to see if its release frequency is reduced in later years. The data examined here however do not include data where the devotees are antagonists. Hecate herself has to be the one with evil intentions. 

Table 4

Chronology of data where the Goddess Hecate is a villain/antagonist 

YearNameData Category
1987Shin Megamei TenseiGame
1996HellboyComic
1998Yu Gi OhTV
1998Hercules (animated)TV
1998CharmedTV
1999Yu Gi OhGame
2006Class of the TitansTV
2006The Bakugan Game
2007HellboyTV
2012Hecate’s GloryBook
2013The Shadowhunter’s CodexBook
2016Blood Brothers 2Game
2019A Ring Realms Novel: Savant’s Blood SagaBook

In the above table, there is one entry in 1987, but then there is a massive jump to the late 90’s where media is produced at a faster rate where Hecate is a villain. From that point onwards, there appears to be a steady rate at which media is released. Therefore, Hecate over time is not losing her villain status despite more information being produced about her. 

MINOR THEMES 

Minor themes observed from the data include surprising and often coincidental themes. The themes are often shared between a small proportion of the data set but are worth mentioning. 

Deity Associations

It is quite noticeable that other deities the Goddess Hecate is associated with do come up amongst the data. In some cases, mortal characters share the name of the deity that Hecate is associated with. The perfect example of this is 4.4 (Fallout). Even though this game was not officially released, and the character that bears the name Hecate is mortal verging on believing herself to be a goddess, the character is named Hecate because she crosses path with a scientist by the name of Diana. The goddesses Hecate and Diana are also mentioned in 2.7 where they are both invoked by Buffy and Willow in an attempt to reverse a spell. The Goddess Selene is also associated with Hecate where in 1.6 (Let the Shadows Fall), a woman calls upon Selene who then calls upon Hecate. There is a particularly unique take on Hecate and Selene in 1.22 where both goddesses fuse with each other. The Goddess Artemis is linked to Hecate in 1.5 (Hecate’s Child) where some children learn that both are associated with the moon- the light and the dark respectively. It is particularly acute that all these goddesses are closely associated to the moon. Indeed, in most of these references, the moon is referred to as the common factor. 

Persephone and Hades are not an unusual association for Hecate to be mentioned with because of her involvement in aiding Demeter’s reunion with her daughter. This myth or motif is significantly included in some of the data- 1.7, 1.13, 1.24, 2.20, 3.5 and 4.9. Interestingly, all these goddesses have been conflated with Hecate at some point or another in the ancient world (see page 28-29 in d’Este 2010). The reference to Nyx in 4.9 is of particular interest. Most references about Hecate and the moon indicate a preference towards the Dark Moon, but this quote in Assassins Creed almost indicates Hecate’s lighter aspects e.g. Phosphorus and Soteira. This leads onto her association with Lucifer in 2.18 (Salem), where both are invoked as part of a black magic ritual. One particular mention with regards to Lucifer is The Chilling Adventures of Sabrina (2.21). In this case, Hecate and Lucifer are in opposition which is in stark contrast to 2.18 (Salem) and classical literature. Both provide the witches with their powers. But Hecate restores their powers where Lucifer has taken them away. The witches consequently form a new coven- the Order of Hecate. What this means for later series however remains to be seen. Historical sources have placed both Hecate and Lucifer as light bringers (d’Este, 2010) in which Hecate is seen as Lucifers’ mother. In the case of 2.18, they are most assuredly not. Instead they are deemed to be lovers bringing forth an evil entity. This almost seems contradictory given their associations with light. 

The Chaldean Hecate/ Daughter of Zeus 

One unexpected theme that comes from the data is the Chaldean one. The Chaldean Oracles are a series of verses that outline theological, cosmological and theurgical information for practitioners. It is said that these verses were composed in the 2nd century AD by Julian the Theurgist (Johnston, 1990). 

These verses outline the concept that the Father/Paternal Intellect births Hecate who then creates the world by mixing the Demiurge/Second Intellect (the Ideas) that was emitted by the Father/Paternal Intellect in her womb. Hecate thus becomes the intermediary between the human/ sensible/physical world and that of the divine. She therefore becomes the Middle Platonic Cosmic World Soul and takes on a saviour role. There is also an alternative mythology suggesting that Hecate is Zeus’ daughter (Atsma, 2000-2017). There are a few data entries which refer to Hecate’s Chaldean aspect, and Zeus as her creator or father. For example, 1.3 (Krewe of Hecate) Zeus creates Hecate by playing pool with the Demiurge. In 2.17, the witches in American Horror Story invoke Hecate as the World Soul in their spell: “Come to me, Hecate. Mother of Angels, Cosmic World Soul.” In 1.10 (The World According To Hecate), there are echoes of Chaldean aspects (despite inaccuracies) where together Zeus and Hecate create the world. There are Chaldean hints in 3.5 (Grimm comics) where she is the daughter of Zeus. In these comics, her alternative earthly name is Heather Angelos. She is also known as Angel, has white wings, and after a stint in the Underworld which changed her, she now works in justice almost following after her father Zeus. She essentially becomes a saviour (Soteira) to others which links back to her Chaldean role. 

Yggdrasil 

This is a unique minor theme that was noticed in the data but to date has not been directly linked to Hecate in historical, mythological or classical texts. It could be because Yggdrasil- the World Tree that connects all the worlds (underworld, earth and divine) is a Norse concept. There are only two references of Hecate with Yggdrasil in the data set. In 3.2 (Hellboy) Hecate hid a soul in the roots of the tree, and 1.9 (The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel- part of the Harry Potter world), Yggdrasil is Hecate’s home. It could this connection is simply a coincidence. But when considering Hecate’s Chaldean’s aspects and Hecate as the Axis Mundi, the connection to the World Tree may not be a coincidence after all. 

CASE STUDY: 1.9- Hestia the Dreamwalker Volume 1, S.E Ellis, 2017, Create Space Independent Publishing 

The fact that a CoH devotee authored a book including Hecate presents a unique opportunity to examine this data entry in more detail. 

In this book (which is available on Amazon), the protagonist is a young girl named Hestia who is part of a shaman community. When it comes to magical abilities, it is her brother who can dreamwalk much more easily than she can. So, when her brother is taken because of this ability, Hestia goes on an adventure to save her brother. On her journey, she meets Hecate who presents herself as a large shining white wolf. This is unusual compared to the other data entries as usually Hecate presents herself in human or part human form with dogs by her side. She meets Hecate in the dream world where it is night time, and behind her there is a Full Moon, which is also dissimilar to other data entries where she is commonly and solely associated with the Dark Moon. She is referred to as the Goddess of the Moon and wolves, and naturally she is surrounded by wolves. These slight variances from the “standard information” ultimately meant categorising this book as level 4 (see Tables 1 and 2). One of the other distinctive aspects of this work is the conversation exchange between Hestia and Hecate. Hestia asks for help, and Hecate will help her but she wants something in return. Ellis writes this story in a way that Hecate is to be respected, but also that the characters have to be careful in how they speak. They are cautious and almost fearful in how Hecate will respond because of her authority. Later on, another character mentions that Hecate wants an item merely to showcase her power. Here Hecate is neither a villain with evil intentions nor is she super-friendly to the point that she willing to give unconditionally. This illustrates Hecate in a very realistic way. Given the author is a Hecate devotee, this presented the prospect to ask him some questions about his book: 

——————————–

What was the inspiration for writing the novel Hestia the Dreamwalker? 

I wanted to write a novel that my 12-year-old daughter would enjoy. So, it had to have a female protagonist, an irritating younger brother, talking wolves and magic. A visit to a wolf sanctuary a year previously had made a huge impact upon my daughter.

The Goddess Hecate is clearly a key character that guides the protagonist, but why did you include her in your story? In other words, what was it about the Goddess Hecate specifically that you wanted to bring into the story? 


This is where it gets personal. I didn’t choose to bring the Goddess Hecate into the story! Up until that point I had never even heard of Hecate. I had a rough outline of the moon-goddess of the wolves and the name “Hecate” just popped into my head. It wasn’t until some months later that I stumbled across something describing the goddess Hecate! I thought I had invented the name myself. 
Within the world of the story, she has a very calm(ing) presence, but this calm is based upon a millennium of experiences and the power of a goddess. You are simultaneously relaxed in her presence but also know that she expects to be treated with reverence. 
In spite of her stony demeanor, inside of her beats the heart of a mother. (Something I feel any devotee could tell you!) She is full of compassion and it is this that saves the protagonist.  But Hecate does not give freely. She expects the protagonist to understand that with the gift given to her, there are expectations and responsibilities that go with it. Both for the protagonist to be an instrument of justice in the world but also to fulfill the obligations of being a member of wolves’ family.

How has your devotion to Hecate affected how you write about her? 


I feel my own obligation now to write about Hecate in my novels. I was a devotee of Hecate before I had four strokes and ended up in ICU. I survived without any impairments. While my novels may not be widely read, I am grateful to see how they’ve touched my readers. I owe that to Hecate. As I’ve grown as a devotee, I learned how truly dynamic and multifaceted of a Goddess she is! I’ve tried to express that through how I write about her.

In the book Hecate appears as a wolf. Hecate is commonly known to associate with various animals (particularly dogs and wolves) and she often appears with animal heads-including a wolf’s head. But what inspired you to choose this particular animal for Hecate to appear as? 

I didn’t choose! I had the rough outline of the moon-goddess of the wolves and it was at that point Hecate chose to introduce herself to my life! In my stories Hecate is a huge wolf, about twice the size of a normal wolf, that glows with the brightness of a full moon on a starless night. She is both regal and composed, but at the same time brimming with the wildness of nature which she is ready to unleash should the circumstances call for it. Within the world of my stories, the wolves represent nature in balance, not given to the extremes or distorted perceptions of the humans. They also represent the power of agency in the world; not of aggression, but of an eagerness to explore, to assert oneself, to create, to impact the lives of others.

The protagonist asks a favour from Hecate, which she grants. But Hecate clearly wants something in return. This is quite a realistic picture of the Goddess- she gives and takes. Did you include this because we know Hecate to be like that? Or did you include this for plot itself? For example, as an obstacle/adventure that the protagonist must overcome to get what she wants? 


I wrote that part before I was familiar with Hecate! I was quite surprised to read the experiences of other devotees that described the same “transactional” aspect of being devoted to Hecate. Hecate asked the protagonist to surmount the obstacle for the purpose of teaching the protagonist that she was capable of much more than she had thought. The protagonist needed that confidence, that strength to carry on and ultimately confront the antagonist. Hecate was not as clear with her other expectations for the protagonist. In return for the gift, the protagonist now has all the responsibilities that any other wolf would be expected to carry…not to mention being at Hecate’s call if she should require it in the future.

——————————–

It may or may not be surprising to readers that in this particular story the real/ non-fictional Goddess Hecate is coming through with all her complexities and nuances. It is clear that writing this story was important for this devotee in his personal exploration of the Goddess Hecate. It could therefore be suggested that for devotees writing about Hecate can be a useful exploratory and transformative experience. 

Chapter 5- Conclusions

Overall, it appears that Hecate’s role is quite variable depending on the plot of a story (in books, comics and TV), or in the game set up. She can be both essential to a plot or just be briefly mentioned. In any case she is nearly always in a place of power- being invoked for her powers, and respected or feared depending on her nature.

MAJOR THEMES 

Reviewing the major themes that come from observing the data, it is easy to understand Hecate’s association with witchcraft. Going back in time looking at previous literary output, Macbeth’s witches refer to Hecate while conducting magic. Even Ancient Roman writers clearly illustrated that Hecate is to be called upon for black and harmful magic (d’Este, 2010) and can even have evil intentions herself- something that clearly comes across in the data where she is presented as a villain. She is portrayed in ancient literature to be a threatening goddess aligned to harmful magic, ghosts and vampires so the root of this theme is quite distinct. But she is also invoked in magical spells – all one needs to do is examine the frequency at which she is mentioned in the PGM (Betz, 1996; d’Este & Rankine, 2009). Looking at these major themes, there appears to be a sense that Hecate is a “Dark Goddess”, which originates from ancient classical literature. The Hecate community nevertheless recognise that she is more than that. But also, that being a “Dark Goddess” consists of more than just black magic and vampires (See d’Este, 2010-2018a). 

Following on from the themes where not all sources provide the same or even accurate information about the Goddess Hecate, the question was asked:

Has the data that contains more accurate information and goes beyond the “standard information” become more frequent? Which could possibly reflect increasing information coming out about her. Upon examining the data, the answer to this is no. The second question asked was: Has Hecate lost her villain status over time? The answer to this is again, no. It appears that more information coming out about Hecate has not affected her the evolution of her portrayal in popular culture- there will always be small inaccuracies, and it could remain common for her to be a villain even if there are exceptions. It is obvious that these come about for the purposes of the plot so it remains a challenge for those who don’t know about her to include her. Despite this, there are a few exceptional pieces of work that transcend the standard. 

MINOR THEMES 

It is interesting and almost complementary to examine the minor themes after reviewing the major ones as these highlight Hecate’s ‘lighter’ aspects. Her deity associations with the moon are certainly reflective of Hecate feeling comfortable and belonging to the night-time. She is often described as the Night-Wanderer after all (Atsma, 2000-2017). But also, it is not unusual for her to be so closely associated with goddesses that she has been conflated with. Her association with Lucifer is borne out of a connection with witchcraft and how they are both light-bringers (d’Este, 2011). However, the lighter aspects of this commonality are often ignored in favour of the darker aspects. But this isn’t always the case as seen with her Chaldean/Yggdrasil connotations, and her saviour (Soteira) aspect. It is this aspect in the fictional Hecate that makes her much more realistic. It is also what makes Hecate in Assassins Creed and the Percy Jackson world stand out- that she is the light in the darkness. These data show her to be a more complex goddess compared to other data entries, which is commendable. Having said that, the image of the Greek Gods that the author of the Percy Jackson world Rick Riordan presents has meant that some have taken offense to how they are portrayed (True Pagan Warrior, 2015). It appears that personal opinions will always play a part. 

THE FICTIONAL GODDESS HECATE 

So, what is the image of the fictional Goddess Hecate? How is she portrayed? Based upon the analyses, the fictional Goddess Hecate and her core traits can be described thusly: 

She is a powerful force who tends to do what she wants, which in some cases can include morally questionable acts against specific individuals. She primarily directs her attention towards black magic, necromancy, and helping or guiding witches as she sees fit. She associates herself with other demonic creatures including vampires, lunar goddesses and Underworld deities be they Ancient Greek or Christian. From time to time however, she may be concerned about soteriological matters and providing illumination to her devotees. 

SUMMARY

For this analysis, the goal was to provide a synthesis of the Goddess Hecate in fictional works of popular culture of the 20-21st century. This was done by producing a record of the Goddess Hecate in 20-21st c. popular culture (objective 1), and from this record an investigation was conducted to analyse the evolution of the Goddess Hecate from the records to discern trends, her core traits and evolution (objective 2). From the data, themes or trends have been identified that paint a picture of the fictional Goddess Hecate as described above that identify her core traits. Asking questions about whether losing her status as a villain, and whether more detailed and accurate information has coincided with more knowledge about her reveals the lack of evolution of her fictional portrayal. 

The image of the fictional Hecate is of stark contrast to the real Goddess Hecate that is known. The fictional Hecate is clearly just a small part of who the real Goddess Hecate is. The case study presented in this analysis shows that other aspects of Hecate can come through nevertheless. But it also indicated that when devotees write stories or produce any other type of media about Hecate, it can be a powerful experience in a devotees’ path, be it released globally or not (fanfiction). At the same time, if something is released and widely distributed by devotees, this offers the unique chance for devotees to present the real complexities and the full character of the real Goddess Hecate to the world. 

References

Atsma, A.J., 2000-2017. The Theoi Project: Hekate. Accessed on: 8 October 2019 Available from: https://www.theoi.com/Khthonios/Hekate.html 

Bel, B.E., 2016. 30 Days of Hekate: 26- Hekate in Popular Culture. Accessed on: 4 October 2019 Available from: https://www.patheos.com/blogs/hearthwitchdownunder/2016/08/30-days-of-hekate-26-hekate-in-popular-culture.html 

Betz, H.D. (ed).,1996. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation. Volume 1: Texts. University of Chicago Press, USA

ComicVine, 2019. Hecate. Accessed on: 4 October 2019 Available from:  https://comicvine.gamespot.com/hecate/4005-5501/ 

d’Este, S., 2010-2018a Covenant of Hecate website: Dark Goddesses. Written from a lecture given by Sorita d’Este & David Rankine (2003) at Witchfest International, Craftfest Ireland & Witchfest Scotland conferences organised by the Children of Artemis. Accessed on: 4 October 2019 Available from: http://hekatecovenant.com/resources/about-hekate/dark-goddesses/

d’Este, S., 2010-2018b. Covenant of Hecate website: Hekate’s Profanation: Maiden, Mother or Crone Goddess. Written by Sorita d’Este for Adamantine Muse, on Pagan Patheos, 2016. Accessed on: 4 October 2019 Available from: http://hekatecovenant.com/resources/about-hekate/hekates-profanation-maiden-mother-or-crone-goddess/

d’Este, S., 2010. Hekate Her Sacred Fires. Avalonia Press, UK

d’Este, S., 2011. Fallen Angels & Lucifer (A Host of Winged Messengers Part III). Accessed on: 16 June 2020 Available from: https://sorita.wordpress.com/2011/10/28/fallen-angels-lucifer-a-host-of-winged-messengers-part-iii/

d’Este, S. & Rankine, D. 2009. Hekate Liminal Rites. Avalonia Press, UK 

Hazel, 2016. Followers of Hekate: The Lamia. Askei Kataskei, Summer Edition, pg. 22-26. 

Jehanzeb, 2019. The Objectification of Women in Comic Books. Fantasy Magazine. Accessed 11 October 2019. Available from: http://www.fantasy-magazine.com/non-fiction/articles/the-objectification-of-women-in-graphic-novels/ 

Johnston, S. I., 1990. Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate’s Roles in the Chaldean 

Oracles and Related Literature. Scholars Press Atlanta, Georgia. 

Oxford Reference, 2019. Oxford Reference: Overview- Popular Culture. Accessed 7 October 2019. Available from: https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100337521 

True Pagan Warrior, 2015. My Gods Are Stronger Than Fiction. Accessed: 4 October 2019 Available from: https://truepaganwarrior.wordpress.com/2015/02/24/my-gods-are-stronger-than-fiction/ 

Tweedale, M. 2013. Hell Notes: Who the Heck is Hecate? Accessed: 4 October 2019 Available from: http://www.multiversitycomics.com/annotations/hell-notes-who-the-heck-is-hecate/ 

About the Author

Hazel is a Torchbearer and Keybearer within the CoH who lives in the UK and has contributed to the CoH in several ways. Being half Greek, she discovered the Goddess Hecate while living in Greece. She has a love of all things oceanic and is currently a mermaid in training.